In poultry, growth promoters, such as bacitracin, virginiamycin and avoparcin, control. Clostridium perfringens infections, which are potentially fatal, in addition to improving feed conversion efficiency. It is estimated that this translated into an improvement.5 per cent, with added economic benefits from the reduction. perfringens infections (jetacar, 1999). The cattle industry in the usa is, perhaps, the most dependent on growth promoters as cattle have energy requirements that are high and that cannot be met easily without the use of growth promoters. High energy rations increase muscle growth and fat deposition in beef cattle, and help to improve milk productivity in dairy cattle. Unfortunately, the use of such rations is associated with side-effects, such as bloat and lactic acidosis, which can be debilitating or even fatal. These conditions are not a problem in Europe, where cattle diets contain more forage. To counteract this, monensin is used and, in addition to preventing the aforementioned conditions, it oliver also significantly reduces ammonia and methane emissions (Mbanzamihigo., 1995).
Australian cattle farmers employ a range of ionophores, namely lasalocid, monensin, narasin and salinomycin. They also employ flavophospholipol and the macrolide oleandomycin. The glycopeptide avoparcin is still used in pig and poultry farming and in rearing cattle in Australia. Use of this compound is discussed more fully below. The use of growth promoters in the european Community is more limited. The oligosaccharide avilamycin is used in pig and poultry farming, ionophores, namely monensin and salinomycin are used for cattle and pigs and flavophospholipol is used with a range of livestock, including cattle, pigs, poultry and rabbits. In pig production, feed conversion efficiency is improved, along with daily growth rates, by approximately.5 per cent. Mortality rates, associated with scouring and proliferative enteritis, are 10-15 per cent lower than in countries, such as Sweden, who do not use antimicrobial growth promoters.
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The following information is taken from the spiritual report of the joint Expert Advisory committee on Antibiotic Resistance (jetacar, 1999) on the use of antibiotics in food producing animals. Pigs are exposed to the greatest range of growth promoters. In the usa, for example, pigs are exposed to _-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, lincosamides and macrolides, including erythromycin and tetracyclines. All these groups have members that are used to treat infections in humans. Pigs in the usa are exposed to a range of other compounds intended for growth promotion. These include bacitracin, flavophospholipol, pleuromutilins, quinoxalines, virginiamycin and arsenical compounds.
In the usa, compounds used as growth promoters for cattle include flavophospholipol and virginiamycin, both also used as growth promoters in poultry. Cattle are also exposed to ionophores such as monensin to promote growth. Poultry are given arsenical compounds. The Animal health Institute of America (ahi, 1998) has estimated that, without the use of growth promoting antibiotics, the usa would require an additional 452 million chickens, 23 million more cattle and 12 million more pigs to reach the levels of production attained by the. In Australia a range of growth promoters are employed. Pig farmers use arsenical compounds, flavophospholipol, the macrolides kitasamycin and tylosin, the quinoxaline olaquindox, and also virginiamycin, a streptogramin. Poultry producers use arsenical compounds, flavophospholipol, bacitracin and virginiamycin.
Since 1996, there have been reports of mrsa strains with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin (Centers for Disease control and Prevention, 2001). Even more worrying is the observation that mrsa can express high-level resistance to glycopeptides when the van, a gene cassette is experimentally transferred from vancomycin-resistant enterococci (Noble, 1997). Were this to happen outside of the laboratory, this would take us one step closer to a post-antibiotic era where certain bacterial infections can no longer be treated with antimicrobial chemotherapy. To avoid entering a post-antibiotic era, agencies around the world are examining our use and abuse of antimicrobials (House of Lords 1998; Commission of the european Communities, 2001). Most antibiotics, around 60 per cent, are used for therapeutic purposes in humans, although an increasing amount is administered as prophylaxis to prevent infections. The farming industry is the second largest consumer of antibiotics after medical practitioners.
About 40 per cent of antibiotics are used as growth promoters although antibiotics are also used therapeutically for animals. To reduce the risk of selecting resistant bacteria, the use of antibiotics must be restricted. The most attractive area for reducing the use of antibiotics is to ban their use as growth promoters in food animals. This review examines the consequences of the use of antibiotics as growth promoters and looks at alternatives aimed at reducing the pressure for the selection of resistance in bacteria that cause disease in both humans and animals. Current use of antibiotic growth promoters. On a world scale, the use of antibiotics as animal growth promoters differs dramatically. Sweden now makes no use of antibiotics for growth promotion purposes; the usa uses a wide range of antibiotics, including some considered to be "medically important".
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One of the best examples of this is essay the methicillin-resistant. Most strains of,. Aureus produce penicillinases, a class of _-lactamase enzymes that break down penicillins, and so penicillinase-stable _-lactams, such as methicillin, cloxacillin and flucloxacillin, have been used to treat staphylococcal infections. The side chain on these molecules is of such a shape as to preclude binding of the _-lactamase to the antibiotic, thus rendering the drug stable. The widespread use of these drugs in the antibiotic arms race led to the emergence of strains. Staphylococcus aureus that resist _-lactamase through an alternative mechanism. Mrsa have also acquired resistance determinants to a wide range of antibiotics (Hospital Infection Society, 2001). Mrsa isolates often are resistant to a range of commonly used antimicrobial agents, plan including erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and many aminoglycosides. The only therapeutic options for serious, systemic mrsa infection currently available are antibiotics in the glycopeptide family, including vancomycin.
If the microbial population could be better controlled, it is possible that the lost energy could be diverted to growth. Thomke elwinger (1998) hypothesize that cytokines released during the immune response may also stimulate the release of catabolic hormones, which would reduce muscle mass. Therefore a reduction in gastrointestinal infections would result in the subsequent increase in muscle weight. Whatever the mechanism of action, the result of the use of growth promoters is an improvement in daily growth rates between 1 and 10 per cent resulting in meat of a better quality, with less fat and increased protein content. There can be no doubt that growth promoters are effective; Prescott baggot (1993 however, showed that the effects of growth promoters were much more noticeable jbl in sick animals and those housed in cramped, unhygienic conditions. Currently, there is controversy surrounding the use of growth promoters for animals destined for meat production, as overuse of any antibiotic over a period of time may lead to the local bacterial populations becoming resistant to the antibiotic. This is it not an invariable rule: Streptococcus pyogenes remains sensitive to penicillins after over sixty years of clinical use but such examples are, however, very rare. Undoubtedly, the medical exploitation of antimicrobial chemotherapy, particularly to treat human infections, has imposed an enormous selection pressure on formerly sensitive bacteria to acquire genetic elements that code for resistance to antibiotics. This phenomenon has occurred within our hospitals, where compromised patients and over-use of antibiotics create an optimal environment for promoting resistance in susceptible strains of bacteria.
in clinical or veterinary practice. This paper considers the use of antibiotics as growth promoters and then examines some of the alternative methods for achieving meat of high quality. Introduction, the term "antibiotic growth promoter" is used to describe any medicine that destroys or inhibits bacteria and is administered at a low, subtherapeutic dose. The use of antibiotics for growth promotion has arisen with the intensification of livestock farming. Infectious agents reduce the yield of farmed food animals and, to control these, the administration of sub-therapeutic antibiotics and antimicrobial agents has been shown to be effective. The use of growth-promoters is largely a problem of intensive farming methods and the problems caused by their use are largely those of developed rather than developing countries. According to the national Office of Animal health (noah, 2001 antibiotic growth promoters are used to "help growing animals digest their food more efficiently, get maximum benefit from it and allow them to develop into strong and healthy individuals". Although the mechanism underpinning their action is unclear, it is believed that the antibiotics suppress sensitive populations of bacteria in the intestines. It has been estimated that as much as 6 per cent of the net energy in the pig diet could be lost due to microbial fermentation in the intestine (Jensen, 1998).
While these strategies vary greatly they all embrace three broad goals, or what sare calls the 3 Pillars of Sustainability: Profit over the long term, stewardship of our nation's land, air and water. Quality of life for farmers, ranchers and their communities There are almost as many ways to reach these goals as there are farms and ranches in America. To learn more, check out the award-winning What is Sustainable Agriculture? Peter Hughes - division of Microbiology, school of biochemistry and Molecular biology, university of leeds, leeds, ls2 9jt, united Kingdom. John Heritage - division of Microbiology, school of biochemistry and Molecular biology, university of leeds, leeds, ls2 9jt, united Kingdom. There has been a developing controversy surrounding the use of antibiotics as growth promoters for food animals. These drugs are used at low doses in animal feeds and are considered to improve the quality of the product, with a lower percentage of fat and a higher essay protein content in the meat. Other benefits of the use of antibiotic growth-promoters include control of zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella, campylobacter, Escherichia coli and enterococci.
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Regional news, want grant information? Hot Topics in Sustainable Agriculture, visit sare's. Topic rooms for in-depth resources on important topics in sustainable agriculture, including: cover Crops, the many benefits of cover crops are increasingly appreciated among farmers. They play an important role in erosion control, weed control, soil oliver conservation and soil health. With careful selection and management, they fit into any crop rotation or cropping system, such as no-till farming, and are integral to organic farming. Season Extension, find in-depth information about high tunnels, hoop houses and other season extension techniques, including high tunnel construction, commercial greenhouse production, high tunnel vegetable production and more. Explore additional sare topic rooms on local and regional food systems, and for southern audiences, on small ruminants and pastured poultry. Every day, farmers and ranchers around the world develop new, innovative strategies to produce and distribute food, fuel and fiber sustainably.