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62 63 The tierwirbel (the german for "animal whorl" or "whirl of animals" 64 ) is a characteristic motif in Bronze age central Asia, the eurasian Steppe, and later also in Iron Age Scythian and European ( Baltic 65 and Germanic ) culture, showing rotational. Even wider diffusion of this "Asiatic" theme has been proposed, to the pacific and even North America (especially moundville ). 66 Historical use edit In Asia, the swastika symbol first appears in the archaeological record around 54 3000 bce in the Indus Valley civilization. 68 69 It also appears in the Bronze and Iron Age cultures around the Black sea and the caspian sea. In all these cultures the swastika symbol does not appear to occupy any marked position or significance, but appears as just one form of a series of similar symbols of varying complexity. In the zoroastrian religion of Persia, the swastika was a symbol of the revolving sun, infinity, or continuing creation. 70 71 It is one of most common symbols found on Mesopotamian coins.

53 Some of the earliest archaeological evidence of the swastika in the Indian subcontinent can be dated to 3,000 BCE. 54 Investigators have also found seals with "mature and geometrically ordered" swatiskas that date to before the Indus Valley civilisation (33001300 bce). Their efforts have traced references to swastikas in the vedas at about that time. The investigators put forth the theory that the swastika moved westward from quality India to finland, scandinavia, the British Highlands and other parts of Europe. 55 Swastikas have also been found on pottery in archaeological digs in Africa, in the area of Kush and on pottery at the jebel Barkal temples, 56 in Iron Age designs of the northern caucasus ( Koban culture and in neolithic China in the majiabang. 59 Other Iron Age attestations of the swastika can be associated with Indo-european cultures such as the Illyrians, 60 Indo-Iranians, celts, greeks, germanic peoples and Slavs. In Sintashta culture 's " country of Towns ancient Indo-european settlements in southern Russia, it has been found a great concentration of some of the oldest swastika patterns. 61 The swastika is also seen in Egypt during the coptic period. Textile number.231-1923 held at the v a museum in London includes small swastikas in its design. This piece was found at qau-el-Kebir, near Asyut, and is dated between AD 300 and 600.

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47 Prehistory edit The samarra bowl, at the pergamonmuseum, berlin. The swastika in the center of the design is a reconstruction. 50 According to mukti jain, the symbol is part of "an intricate meander pattern of joined up swastikas" found on a late paleolithic figurine of a bird, carved from mammoth ivory, found in mezine, ukraine and dated to 15,000 years old. These engraved objects were found near phallic objects, which states jain may support the idea that the meandering pattern of swastika was a fertility symbol. 51 However it has also been suggested that this swastika may be a stylized picture of a stork in flight and not the true swastika that is in use today. 52 In England, neolithic or Bronze age stone carvings of the symbol have been found on Ilkley moor, such as the Swastika stone. Mirror-image swastikas (clockwise and anti-clockwise) have been found on ceramic pottery in the devetashka strange cave, bulgaria, dated to 6,000 BCE.

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45 Comet edit detail of Astrology manuscript, ink on silk, bce 2th century, han, unearthed from Mawangdui tomb 3rd, Chansha, hunan Province, china. Carl Sagan in his book comet (1985) reproduces a han-dynasty Chinese manuscript (the book of Silk, 2nd century bce) that shows comet tail varieties: most are variations on simple comet tails, but the last shows the comet nucleus with four bent arms extending from. Sagan suggests that in antiquity a comet could have approached so close to earth that the jets of gas streaming from it, bent by the comet's rotation, became visible, leading to the adoption of the swastika as a symbol across the world. 46 Bob Kobres in his 1992 paper Comets and the Bronze age collapse contends that the swastika-like comet on the han-dynasty silk comet manuscript was labeled a "long tailed pheasant star" ( dixing ) because of its resemblance to a bird's foot or footprint,. Hewitt's observation on page 145 of Primitive traditional History: vol. 48 as well as an article concerning carpet decoration in good housekeeping. 49 Kobres goes on to suggest an association of mythological birds and comets also outside China.

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In Unicode.2, two essay swastika symbols and two sauwastikas were added to the writing tibetan block : swastika u0FD5 right-facing svasti sign, U0FD7 right-facing svasti sign with dots, and sauwastikas U0FD6 left-facing svasti sign, U0FD8 left-facing svasti sign with dots. 38 meaning of the symbol edit a 3,200 year old swastika necklace excavated from Marlik, gilan province, northern Iran European hypotheses of the swastika are often treated in conjunction with cross symbols in general, such as the sun cross of Bronze age religion. Beyond its certain presence in the " proto-writing " symbol systems, such as the vinca script, 39 which appeared during the neolithic. 40 Mosaic swastika in excavated byzantine church in Shavei tzion (Israel) North pole edit According to rené guénon, the swastika represents the north pole, and the rotational movement around a centre or immutable axis ( axis mundi and only secondly it represents the sun. As such it is a symbol of life, of the vivifying role of the supreme principle of the universe, the absolute god, in relation to the cosmic order. It represents the activity (the hellenic Logos, the hindu aum, the Chinese taiyi, "Great One of the principle of the universe in the formation of the world.

41 According to guénon, the swastika in its polar value has the same meaning of the yin and yang symbol of the Chinese tradition, and of other traditional symbols of the working of the universe, including the letters Γ ( gamma ) and g, symbolizing. 42 According to the scholar reza assasi, the swastika represents the north ecliptic north pole centred in ζ draconis, with the constellation Draco as one of its beams. He argues that this symbol was later attested as the four-horse chariot of Mithra in ancient Iranian culture. They believed the cosmos was pulled by four heavenly horses who revolved around a fixed centre in a clockwise direction. He suggests that this notion later flourished in Roman Mithraism, as the symbol appears in Mithraic iconography and astronomical representations. 43 According to the russan archaeologist Gennady Zdanovich, who studied some of the oldest examples of the symbol in Sintashta culture, the swastika symbolizes the universe, representing the spinning constellations of the celestial north pole centred in α ursae minoris, specifically the little and Big. 44 likewise, according to rené guénon the swastika is drawn by visualising the big Dipper/Great bear in the four phases of revolution around the pole star.

One distinct representation of a swastika, as a double swastika or swastika made of squares, appears in a nepalese silver mohar coin of 1685, kingdom of Patan (NS 805) KM 337. 33 Chirality describes an absence of reflective symmetry, with the existence of two versions that are mirror images of each other. The mirror-image forms are typically described as: left-facing and right-facing left-hand and right-hand. The left-facing version is distinguished in some traditions and languages as a distinct symbol from the right-facing and is called the " sauwastika ". The compact swastika can be seen as a chiral irregular icosagon (20-sided polygon ) with fourfold (90) rotational symmetry.


Such a swastika proportioned on a 5 5 square grid and with the broken portions of its legs shortened by one unit can tile the plane by translation alone. The nazi hakenkreuz used a 5 5 diagonal grid, but with the legs unshortened. 34 Varieties of swastikas Croix gammée kruszwica's swastika greco-roman swastika battersea shield Thames swastika written characters edit The sauwastika were adopted as a standard character in Sanskrit. " " ( pinyin : wàn ) and as such entered various other East Asian languages, including Chinese script. In Japanese the symbol is called " " ( Hepburn : manji ) or " " ( manji ). The sauwastika is included in the Unicode character sets of two languages. In the Chinese block it is U534D (left-facing) and U5350 for the swastika (right-facing 35 The latter has a mapping in the original Big5 character set, 36 but the former does not (although it is in Big5 37 ).

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12 hooked cross (German: hakenkreuz angled cross ( Winkelkreuz ) or crooked cross ( Krummkreuz ). Cross cramponned, cramponnée, or cramponny, in heraldry, as each arm resembles a hippie crampon or angle-iron ( German : Winkelmaßkreuz ). Fylfot, chiefly review in heraldry and architecture. Tetraskelion (Greek: τετρασκέλιον literally meaning "four-legged especially when composed of four conjoined legs (compare triskelion/triskele Greek: τρισκέλιον). 29 whirling logs (navajo, native american can denote abundance, prosperity, healing, and luck. 30 Appearance edit left: the left-facing swastika is a sacred symbol in the bon and Buddhist traditions. Right: the right-facing swastika appears commonly in Hinduism and jainism. 31 32 Although all swastikas are bent crosses based on a chiral symmetry, they appear with different geometric details: as compact crosses with short legs, as crosses with large arms and as motifs in a pattern of unbroken lines.

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Schliemann linked his findings to the essay sanskrit swastika. The word swastika derives from the sanskrit root swasti, which is composed of su, good, well and asti it is, there. 22 The word swasti occurs frequently in the vedas, and it means "well, good, auspicious, luck, success, prosperity". 23 24 Swastika is a derived word and connotes a form of welcome or a sign of something "associated with well-being". 23 According to monier-Williams, a majority of scholars consider it a solar symbol, and in the ancient Indian texts the base swasti is equivalent to "may it be well with thee! 23 The sign implies something fortunate, lucky or auspicious, and when applied to entrances, doors, mandalas or object it denotes or reminds of auspiciousness or well-being. 23 The earliest known textual use of the word swastika is in Panini's Ashtadhyayi, where it is used to explain one of the sanskrit grammar rules, in the context of a type of identifying mark on cow's ear. 22 Most scholarship suggests Panini lived in or before mid 4th-century bce ( floruit 25 26 possibly in 6th or 5th century bce. 27 28 Other names for the symbol include: tetragammadion (Greek: τετραγαμάδιον or cross gammadion ( Latin : crux gammata ; French: croix gammée as each arm resembles the Greek letter Γ ( gamma ).

nationalistic pride. To jews and the enemies of nazi germany, it became a symbol of antisemitism and terror. 6 In many western countries, the swastika is viewed as a symbol of racial supremacy and intimidation because of its association with nazism. 7 14 15 The reverence for the swastika symbol in some cultures, in contrast to the stigma in others, has led to misinterpretations, misunderstandings and mutual accusations. 16 17 Contents Etymology and nomenclature edit The word swastika has been in use in English since the 1870s, replacing gammadion, from Greek γαμάδιον. 12 It is alternatively spelled in contemporary texts as svastika, 18 while in the 19th- and early 20th-century, alternate spellings such as suastika were occasionally used. 19 It was derived from the sanskrit term ( devanagari : which transliterates to svastika under the commonly used iast transliteration system, but is pronounced closer to "swastika" when letters are used with their English values. The first attested use of the word swastika in a european text is found in 1871 with the publications of heinrich Schliemann, who while crudely digging the hisarlik mound near the aegean sea coast, for the lost history of Troy (Trojan war discovered over 1,800.

Nazi symbolism as an emblem of Aryan race identity and, as a result, become stigmatized in the west by association with ideas of racism and antisemitism. 6 7 The name swastika comes from Sanskrit ( devanagari : ) and denotes "conducive to well being or auspicious". 8 9 In Hinduism, the clockwise symbol is called swastika, symbolizing surya (sun prosperity and good luck, while the counterclockwise symbol is called sauvastika, symbolizing night or tantric aspects of Kali. 9 In jainism, a swastika is the symbol for Suparshvanatha — the 7th of 24 Tirthankaras (spiritual teachers and saviours while in Buddhism it symbolizes the auspicious footprints of the buddha. 9 10 11 The swastika is an icon widely found in human history and the modern world. 4 9 In various forms it is alternatively known in various European languages as the hakenkreuz hooked cross gammadion, cross cramponnée, croix gammée, fylfot or tetraskelion and in East Asia as the wàn meaning "all things". A swastika generally takes the form of a cross whose arms are of equal length and perpendicular to the adjacent arms, each bent midway at a right angle. 12 13 It is found in the archeological remains restaurant of the Indus Valley civilization and Mesopotamia as well as in early byzantine and Christian artwork.

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For other uses, see, swastika (disambiguation). A swastika is a symbol found in many cultures, with different meanings, drawn in different styles. The swastika (as a character or ) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the review cultures of, eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality. Indian religions, chinese religions, mongolian, and, siberian shamanisms. 1 2 3 4, according to, rené guénon, the swastika represents the north pole, the centre and the axle of the world, the activity of the absolute, god of the universe shaping the world. The symbol is drawn either in the stars around the celestial north pole (the, big Dipper ) or in the stars around the ecliptic north pole draco ). In the, western world, it was historically a symbol of auspiciousness and good luck; 6 but in the 1930s, it became the main feature.


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The swastika (as a character or ) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, mongolian, and Siberian shamanisms. Find facts, photos, information and history, travel videos, flags, and maps of countries and cities of the world from National geographic.

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