37 As Robert Babe notes, the railway brought industrialization, transporting coal and building supplies to manufacturing sites. It was also a kind of communications medium that contributed to the spread of European civilization. Babe writes that, for Innis, the cpr's equipment "comprised a massive, energy-consuming, fast-moving, powerful, capital-intensive 'sign' dropped into the very midst of indigenous peoples, whose entire way of life was disrupted, and eventually shattered as a result. 38 Communications scholar Arthur Kroker argues that Innis's study of the canadian Pacific railway was only the first in which he attempted to demonstrate that "technology is not something external to canadian being; but on the contrary, is the necessary condition and lasting consequence. 39 It also reflected Innis's lifelong interest in the exercise of economic and political power. His cpr history ends, for example, with a recounting of Western grievances against economic policies, such as high freight rates and the steep import tariffs designed to protect fledgling Canadian manufacturers. Westerners complained that this National Policy funnelled money from Prairie farmers into the pockets of the eastern business establishment. "Western Canada innis wrote, "has paid for the development hippie of Canadian nationality, and it would appear that it must continue to pay. The acquisitiveness of Eastern Canada shows little sign of abatement." 40 Staples thesis edit harold Innis is considered the leading founder of a canadian school of economic thought known as the staples theory.
Simcoe's diary (1965 The Clear Spirit: Canadian Women and Their Times (1966) and Unfold the years (1949 a history of the young Women's Christian Association. 33 She also edited Harold Innis's posthumous Essays in Canadian Economic History (1956) and a 1972 reissue of his Empire and Communications. 33 Donald quayle Innis became a geography professor at the State University of New York, mary married a surgeon and did graduate work in French literature, hugh Innis became a professor at ryerson University where he taught communications and economics, Anne Innis Dagg did doctoral. 35 History of the cpr edit donald Alexander Smith drives the last spike of the canadian Pacific railway at Craigellachie, bc—november 7, 1885 Harold Innis wrote mba his PhD thesis on the history of the canadian Pacific railway (CPR). The completion of Canada's first transcontinental railway in 1885 had been a defining moment in Canadian history. Innis's thesis, eventually published as a book in 1923, can be seen as an early attempt to document the railway's significance from an economic historian's point of view. It uses voluminous statistics to underpin its arguments. Innis maintains that the difficult and expensive construction project was sustained by fears of American annexation of the canadian West. 36 Innis argues that "the history of the canadian Pacific railroad is primarily the history of the spread of Western civilization over the northern half of the north American continent".
Years later, in an essay on Veblen, Innis praised him for waging war against "standardized static economics". 30 Innis got his first taste of university teaching at Chicago, where he delivered several introductory economics courses. One of his students was Mary quayle, the woman he would marry in may 1921 when he was 26 and she. 31 Together they had four children, donald (1924 mary (1927 hugh (1930 and Anne (1933). 32 Mary quayle Innis was herself a notable economist and writer. Her book, an Economic History of Canada, was published in 1935. 33 Her novel, Stand on a rainbow appeared in 1943. 34 Her other books include Mrs.
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Watson also notes that the Great War influenced Innis's intellectual outlook. It strengthened his business Canadian nationalism ; sharpened his opinion of what he thought were the destructive effects of technology, including the communications media that were used so effectively to "sell" the war; and led him, for the first time, to doubt his Baptist faith. 24 Graduate studies admission edit McMaster and Chicago edit harold Innis completed a master of Arts at McMaster, graduating in April 1918. His thesis, called The returned Soldier, "was a detailed description of the public policy measures that were necessary, not only to provide a supportive milieu to help veterans get over the effects of the war, but also to move on with national reconstruction". 25 george herbert mead Innis did his postgraduate work at the University of Chicago and was awarded his PhD, with a dissertation on the history of Canadian Pacific railway, 26 in August 1920. 27 His two years at Chicago had a profound influence on his later work. His interest in economics deepened and he decided to become a professional economist.
The economics faculty at Chicago questioned abstract and universalist neoclassical theories, then in vogue, arguing that general rules for economic policy should be derived from specific case studies. 28 Innis was influenced by the university's two eminent communications scholars, george herbert mead and Robert. Although he did not attend any of these famous professors' classes, Innis did absorb their idea that communication involved much more than the transmission of information. Carey writes that mead and Park "characterized communication as the entire process whereby a culture is brought into existence, maintained in time, and sedimented into institutions". 29 While at Chicago, innis was exposed to the ideas of Thorstein Veblen, the iconoclastic thinker who drew on his deep knowledge of philosophy and economics to write scathing critiques of contemporary thought and culture. Veblen had left Chicago years before, but his ideas were still strongly felt there.
He also learned about Western grievances over high interest rates and steep transportation costs. 18 In his final undergraduate year, Innis focused on history and economics. He kept in mind a remark made by history lecturer. Wallace that the economic interpretation of history was not the only possible one, but that it went the deepest. 19 First World War service edit harold Innis in uniform After graduating from McMaster, Innis felt that his Christian principles compelled him to enlist in the canadian Expeditionary force. He was sent to France in the fall of 1916 to fight in the first World War.
20 Trench warfare with its "mud and lice and rats" had a devastating effect on him. 21 Innis's role as an artillery signaller gave him firsthand experience of life (and death) on the front lines as he participated in the successful Canadian attack on Vimy ridge. 22 Signallers, or spotters, watched where each artillery shell landed, then sent back aiming corrections so that the next shells could hit their targets more accurately. On July 7, 1917, Innis received a serious shrapnel wound in his right thigh that required eight months of hospital treatment in England. 23 Innis's war was over. His biographer, john Watson, notes the physical wound took seven years to heal, but the psychological damage lasted a lifetime. Innis suffered recurring bouts of depression and nervous exhaustion because of his military service.
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The experience made him realize that the life of a teacher in a small, rural school was not for him. 15 University studies edit The original home of McMaster University at 273 Bloor Street West, toronto In October 1913, Innis started classes at McMaster University (then in Toronto). McMaster was a natural choice for him because it was a baptist university and many students who attended woodstock college went there. McMaster's liberal arts professors encouraged critical thinking and debate. 16 Innis was especially influenced by james Ten Broeke, the university's one-man philosophy department. Ten Broeke posed an essay question that Innis pondered for the rest of his life: "Why shakespeare do we attend to the things to which we attend?" 17 Before his final undergraduate year at McMaster, Innis spent a summer teaching at the northern Star School. The experience gave him a sense of the vastness of Canada.
At the time, the baptist Church was an important part of life in rural areas. It gave isolated families a sense of community and embodied the values of individualism and independence. Its far-flung congregations were not ruled by a centralized, bureaucratic authority. 12 Innis became an agnostic in later tom life, but never lost his interest in religion. 13 According to his friend and biographer Donald Creighton, innis's character was moulded by the Church: The strict sense of values and the feeling of devotion to a cause, which became so characteristic of him in later life, were derived, in part at least, from. 14 Innis attended the one-room schoolhouse in Otterville and the community's high school. He travelled 20 miles (32 km) by train to woodstock, ontario, to complete his secondary education at a baptist-run college. He intended to become a public-school teacher and passed the entrance examinations for teacher training, but decided to take a year off to earn the money he would need to support himself at an Ontario teachers' college. At age 18, therefore, he returned to the one-room schoolhouse at Otterville to teach for one term until the local school board could recruit a fully qualified teacher.
: "I am pleased to think of my own book the gutenberg Galaxy as a footnote to the observations of Innis on the subject of the psychic and social consequences, first of writing then of printing." 10 Contents Rural roots edit early life edit. The photo was taken around 1906. Innis is the boy with the cap, fifth from the right, back row. Innis would later teach for a few months at the school. Harold Adams Innis was born in 1894 on a small livestock and dairy farm near the community of Otterville in southwestern Ontario's Oxford county. As a boy he loved the rhythms and routines of farm life and he never forgot his rural origins. 11 His mother, mary Adams Innis, had named him 'herald hoping he would become a minister in the strict evangelical Baptist faith that she and her husband William shared.
Havelock formed the foundations of the, toronto School of communication theory, which provided a source of inspiration for future members of the school: Marshall McLuhan and, edmund Snow Carpenter. Innis laid the basis for scholarship that looked at the social sciences from a distinctly canadian point of view. As the head of the University of Toronto's political economy department, he worked to build up a cadre of Canadian scholars so that universities would not continue to rely as heavily on British or American-trained professors unfamiliar with Canada's history and culture. He was successful in establishing sources of financing for Canadian scholarly research. 6, as the cold War grew hotter after 1947, Innis grew increasingly hostile to the United States. He warned repeatedly that Canada was becoming a subservient colony to its much more powerful southern neighbor. "we are indeed fighting for our lives he warned, pointing especially to the "pernicious influence of American advertising. We can only survive by taking persistent action at strategic points against American imperialism in all its attractive guises." report 7 His anti-Americanism influenced some younger scholars, including Donald Creighton. 8 Innis also tried to defend universities from political and economic pressures.
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Harold Adams Innis ( /ɪnɪs/ ; november 5, 1894 november 8, 1952) was a needed canadian professor of political economy at the, university of Toronto and the author of seminal works on media, communication theory, and Canadian economic history. Despite his dense and difficult prose, innis was one of Canada's most original thinkers. He helped develop the staples thesis, which holds that Canada's culture, political history, and economy have been decisively influenced by the exploitation and export of a series of "staples" such as fur, fishing, lumber, wheat, mined metals, and coal. The staple thesis dominated economic history in Canada 1930s-1960s, and continues to be a fundamental part of the canadian political economy tradition. 1, innis's writings on communication explore the role of media in shaping the culture and development of civilizations. 2, he argued, for example, that a balance between oral and written forms of communication contributed to the flourishing. Greek civilization in the 5th century. 3, he warned, however, that, western civilization is now imperiled by powerful, advertising -driven media obsessed by "present-mindedness" and the "continuous, systematic, ruthless destruction of elements of permanence essential to cultural activity". 4, his intellectual bond with.