The pollution control authorities have been lenient in implementing the law and ensuring prevention of water pollution caused due to these industries mainly considering the socio economic benefits that they provide and also the low financial capacity of the small scale units. It is a huge capital investment for the relatively smaller industrial units to set up effluent treatment plants and the return on investment is very low. Since they provide employment, therefore these agencies have not tightened the noose on them. This stance of the pollution Control boards further discouraged the polluting industries to formulate and implement pollution management and reduction strategies either by efficient effluent treatment or process changes by adopting newer and cleaner technologies. In this report we have attempted to analyse the environmental impact of the production process followed in a textile unit with reference to tiruppur, a major textile cluster in south India. A cost benefit analysis of the implementation of cleaner production processes and setting up of treatment plants has also been done to depict the return on investment for these textile units. Textile Industry And book Its Benefits Tiruppur, located in Tamil Nadu, is a leading cotton knitwear industrial hub in south India. The industrial activities have experienced a rapid growth during the last two decades due to decentralization and flexibility.
Carbon absorption Technique which is effective in removing pigments and dyes using carbon which is activated and has large surface area. Reverse osmosis where cellulose acetate is used to create a semi permeable membrane and subjected to pressure which is usually greater than the osmotic pressure of the effluent. This process can remove 95 of the dissolved solid content as the solution passes from area of higher concentration to lower concentration. Now to discuss the applicability of these methods to curb water pollution in Textile industry and also to do the cost benefit analysis of the same we shall discuss a relevant case of Tiruppur Textile Industry. Case discussion: Tiruppur Textile Industry paper background south Asia lately has become the hub of Industrialisation and the unchecked growth is leading to severe environmental problems. Industries have sprung up as clusters which is why the issue of environmental pollution becomes even more relevant in highly water polluting industries like textile dyeing, leather tanning, paper and pulp processing, sugar manufacturing, etc. The runoff released by these industries leads to contamination of surface and ground water sources and eventually impacts the livelihood of the poor. In a usual scenario, the above mentioned industrial units function at a small or medium scale, are a huge employment opportunity for the locals and have the potential to generate foreign exchange because all these industries are export oriented and more than half of their. Given the vast coverage of these industries, the pollution control mechanisms have been awfully weak in these units.
Pre-release Stage water Treatment Before water is released into the nearest water body it is essential that it is treated properly in order to ensure that there is significant reduction in the level of pollutants in water before it gets released into the water body. The following steps are necessary in order to ensure proper water condition before release into the nearest river or stream or lake. Primary Treatment: It involves concepts of removal of suspended solids by sedimentation, floatation or coagulation techniques using alum and electrolyte. Secondary Treatment: This involves oxidation of organic matter by aeration either by chemical of biological methods or by both. This is done in presence of micro organisms in presence of chemicals such as Urea. Pollutants resistant to biodegradation such as detergents and petrochemicals are removed by non biological means and are again treated with bleaching powder before releasing them into the water body. Tertiary Treatments: Tertiary treatment contains of three main methods like chemical coagulation which involves a mixing tank with the effluent and the coagulant mixed and its ph adjusted to an optimum level. The resultant coagulated material is separated by sedimentation or flocculation.
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Oily scum interferes with the oxygen transfer and colloidal matter clog the pores of soil. High levels of dissolved solids are detrimental to sewers as it causes incrustation in issues sewers. High level of sodium is also harmful to crops. Dissolved oxygen in water is an essential element in marine life and therefore the amount of oxygen required to correct the effluent is expressed in the form of biochemical oxygen demand or bod. Steps to curb Water Pollution to curb pollution due to these textile mills in the areas around them the following measures can be taken in order to increase measures leading to long term sustainability as a corporate strategy which is wholly aligned to the business. Reduction in waste resume water volume: The water used in processing of textiles is reduced to a considerable extent such that the effluent concentration is limited to a specified small volume of water and it does not start impacting larger volume of water.
Counter flow processing Water re-use technique which uses the same water before discharging it into the water body so that effluent concentration is limited to a small volume and more water is saved in the process. Reduction of process chemicals: The process chemicals create more than 90 of the pollution in textile industries. This also brings down the production cost in terms of the chemicals used. It can be achieved through reusing various chemicals when processes are completed. For Example: caustic soda is recovered from the mercerizing and sourcing and is consequently filtered and dialyzed so that it can be reused. Process modification would involve slight modifications in the various processes used during manufacturing in order to create lesser pollution and reduces unnecessary wastage of water. Certain alternate chemicals can also be used during manufacturing so that recovering those chemicals become easy and it thus can be used in further manufacturing processes.
Standards like sa 8000 have now been started to get implemented in the industry at a large scale. This has also led to pressure on companies to limit sourcing from countries which violate the practices mandated under the norms of sa 8000. The Indian industry needs to improve its working practices and the fallout of the new international developments in this particular area. In such a scenario large players can take advantage of this and indulge in practices which promote sustainability. Proper water Use by textile mills and recycling and purifying water and then reusing it for industrial purposes can also serve the purpose in the long run.
Textile Industry and water Pollution, textile Industry is one of the most polluting industries in the country and in terms of consumption of water it constitutes around.2 of total consumption of water for various processes like scouring, sizing, and bleaching, dying and other associated. It is one of the most growing sectors in the Indian economy in terms of its contribution to the total gdp of the country. Water pollution is done by each and every process in the whole manufacturing of textiles, The table below gives an exhaustive list of the various processes and the nature of effluents and pollutants which are released as a result of the above. Pollutants, nature of Effluents, desizing, starch, Glucose, resins, fats and Waxes. High biochemical oxygen demand kiering caustic Soda, wax, Grease, soda Ash, sodium Sillicate Strongly Alkaline, high biochemical oxygen Demand Bleaching Hypochlorite, caustic soda, hydrogen peroxide and acids Low biochemical oxygen demand and strongly alkaline mercerization caustic Soda Strongly alkaline, low biochemical oxygen demand dyeing Reducing. The stakeholders which reside alongside areas which are affected by this menace face severe health hazards and face decrease and productivity and life span as a result of the above. Effects on Aquatic Life and Other living creatures High ph levels in water makes it alkaline, alkaline water is not fit for aquatic creatures like fishes and it also causes incrustation in sewers and may also damage crops by hampering their natural growth rate. Spoiling the natural color of water hampers the passage of sunlight and thus prevents photosynthesis in the aquatic plants and other marine life existing inside water. The effluents and oils present in the pollutants which are passed into water increase the turbidity of water and gives it a bad appearance and foul smell.
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Strengths, weaknesses, production Capacity, increased global competition, cheap Labor. Dumping, efficient production facilities, huge decentralized sector, large domestic markets. High production costs, large Export Potential, poor Supply chain management. Flexible manufacturing Systems, outdated technologies, to grow at a rate of around 15 in the coming years the sector needs to keep in mind the following points which shall essays go a long way in ensuring that growth is maintained at healthy rate and is also. Threat of competition in Domestic Market. Ecological and Social Awareness, ecological and social awareness are going to play a huge role in determining who is going to reap profits in a sustainable manner keeping in view the sensitivity of the stakeholders who are most of the times the losers when large. The industry is likely to face pressure from the media, the government and the common people to follow international norms and regulations which shall prohibit it from using natural resources like water which is a key ingredient in producing textiles. The way this industry uses water and how much it pollutes the various sources shall be determined by external factors. Developed markets have extremely high standards of consumer consciousness on issues such as polluting dyes, Usage of Child Labor, Unhealthy working conditions of the mill workers etc.
This cess is for the purposes and utilization under the water Act. The cess Act grants a rebate in the cess payable to those who install a plant for the treatment of sewage or effluents. This is one of the steps to encourage establishments to set up effluent treatment plants and process the effluents before releasing them. However it is to be noted that Cess Act cannot be deciphered individually and should be taken into consideration only in relation with the water Act. While it is quite evident that water laws are the need of the hour but these water law reforms can only contribute to solving water management issues but fail to solve issues related to human rights, social, environmental and health aspects of water. Textile industry, the textile industry in India mainly depends upon exports and manufacturing. Export income from textiles account for around 30 of India's export revenues times and 3 of India's Gross domestic product. This industry has grown a lot over the past few years especially after the economic liberalization in 1991 where the country was opened to free trade under the auspices of Dr Manmohan Singh. The table below gives the major strength and weaknesses of the textile industry in the country.
the state boards as follows: devising a comprehensive programme for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution in respective states. Encouraging, conducting, and participating in investigations and research of water pollution problems. Inspecting facilities for sewage and developing economical and reliable methods of its treatment. State board in its capacity may take emergency measures if it foresees accidents or events that might pollute the water bodies. These measures include activities like removing the pollutants, alleviating the damage and issuing orders to the polluter prohibiting effluent discharges. Under section 33A state boards can issue directions to any person, office or authority, including orders to close, prohibit or regulate any industry, operation or process and to stop or regulate the supply of water, electricity or any other service. Not complying with a court order under section 33 or a direction from the board under section 33A is punishable by fines and imprisonment as per section. In order to assist the water Act, the water Pollution board constituted under the pollution Act, has been empowered under the cess Act to levy a cess/tax for meeting the financial requirements for its working.
All the states have approved the implementation of Water Act 1974. In spite of this there is a lack of umbrella legislation at the national level because of which different state and central make legal interventions do not coincide often. Water Prevention And Control Of Pollution Act, 1974 Salient features. The water Act establishes a central and State pollution control boards. The central board may advise the central govt. On water pollution issues, coordinate the activities of state pollution control boards and devise a comprehensive plan for the control and prevention of water pollution. In case of any conflicts between the central and the State boards, central board prevails. This act is applicable to streams, inland waters, subterranean waters, and sea or tidal waters. Standards for the discharge of effluent or the quality of the used water being released into the water sources are to be prescribed by the state boards.
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Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015, the water law framework in our country is attributed by the coexistence of a number of different principles, rules and acts adopted over several decades extending from common law principles and irrigation acts from the colonial improve acts. The basic underlying reasons for water law reforms are both physical and institutional. Over the past few decades water has gradually become sparse in many parts of the country. This can be attributed to increased pollution of finite water resources and also increased use of water by all categories of water users as a consequence of economic and population growth. The water Act of 1974 was India's first attempt towards dealing comprehensively with the environment related issues. Water is a subject in the State list under the constitution. Consequently, the water Act which is a central law came into being under Article 252(I) of the constitution which empowers the Union government to make laws in a field reserved for states.