45 ayurveda says that both oil and tar can be used to review stop bleeding, 32 and that traumatic bleeding can be stopped by four different methods: ligation of the blood vessel, cauterisation by heat, use of preparations to facilitate clotting, and use of preparations. Oils are also used in a number of ways, including regular consumption, anointing, smearing, head massage, application to affected areas, 47 not in citation given and oil pulling. Liquids may also be poured on the patient's forehead, a technique called shirodhara. Cataract in human eye magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery is mentioned in the sushruta samhita, as a procedure to be performed with a jabamukhi salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the obstructing phlegm and push it out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged. 48 Panchakarma edit further information: Panchakarma According to ayurveda, the technique of panchakarma (devanāgarī: ) eliminates toxic elements from the body. 49 Panchakarma includes Vamana, virechana, basti, nasya and raktamokshana.
The use essay of opium is not found in the ancient ayurvedic texts, and is first mentioned in the sarngadhara samhita ( ce a book on pharmacy used in Rajasthan in Western India, as an ingredient of an aphrodisiac to delay male ejaculation. 45 It is possible that opium was brought to India along with or before the mohammedan conquest. 44 46 The book yoga ratnakara ( ce, unknown author which is popular in Maharashtra, uses opium in a herbal-mineral composition prescribed for diarrhea. 45 In the Bhaisajya ratnavali, opium and camphor are used for acute gastroenteritis. In this drug, the respiratory depressant action of opium is counteracted by the respiratory stimulant property of Camphor. 45 Later books have included the narcotic property for use as analgesic pain reliever. 45 Cannabis indica is also absent from the ancient ayurveda books, and is first mentioned in the sarngadhara samhita as a treatment for diarrhea. 45 In the Bhaisajya ratnavali it is named as an ingredient in an aphrodisiac.
Ayurveda uses alcoholic beverages called Madya, 42 which are said to adjust the doshas by increasing Pitta and reducing Vatta and Kapha. 42 Madya are classified by the raw material and fermentation process, and the categories include: sugar-based, fruit-based, cereal-based, cereal-based with herbs, fermentated with vinegar, and tonic wines. The intended outcomes can include causing purgation, improving digestion or taste, creating dryness, or loosening joints. Ayurvedic texts describe madya as non-viscid and fast-acting, and say that it enters and cleans minute pores in the body. 42 Purified opium 43 is used in eight ayurvedic preparations 44 and is said to balance the vata and Kapha doshas and increase the pitta dosha. 43 It is prescribed for diarrhea and dysentery, for increasing the sexual and muscular ability, and for affecting the brain. The sedative and pain-relieving properties of opium are not considered in ayurveda.
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32 The study of the lethal points or marman marma is of special importance. 33 An ayurvedic practitioner applying oils using head massage. Treatment and prevention edit Two of the eight branches of classical ayurveda deal with surgery ( Śalya-cikitsā and Śālākya-tantra but contemporary ayurveda tends to stress attaining vitality by building a healthy metabolic system and maintaining good digestion and excretion. 33 ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, and meditation. 40 One type of prescription is a sattvic diet. Ayurveda follows the concept of Dinacharya, which says that natural cycles (waking, sleeping, working, meditation etc.) are important for health.
Hygiene, including regular bathing, cleaning of teeth, skin care, and eye washing, is also a central practice. 32 Substances used edit Plant-based treatments in ayurveda may be derived from roots, leaves, fruits, bark, or seeds such as cardamom and cinnamon. In the 19th century, william Dymock and co-authors summarized hundreds of plant-derived medicines along with the uses, microscopic structure, chemical composition, toxicology, prevalent myths and stories, and relation to commerce in British India. 41 Animal products used in ayurveda include milk, bones, and gallstones. In addition, fats are prescribed both for consumption and for external use. Consumption of minerals, including sulphur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate and gold, are also prescribed. 32 The addition of minerals to herbal medicine is called rasa shastra.
These are organized in ten pairs: heavy/light, cold/hot, unctuous/dry, dull/sharp, stable/mobile, soft/hard, non-slimy/slimy, smooth/coarse, minute/gross, and viscous/liquid. 33 ayurveda also names three elemental substances, the dosha s (called Vata, pitta and Kapha and states that a balance of the doshas results in health, while imbalance results in disease. One ayurvedic view is that the doshas are balanced when they are equal to each other, while another view is that each human possesses a unique combination of the doshas which define this person's temperament and characteristics. In either case, it says that each person should modulate their behavior or environment to increase or decrease the doshas and maintain their natural state. In medieval taxonomies of the sanskrit knowledge systems, ayurveda is assigned a place as a subsidiary veda ( upaveda ).
34 Some medicinal plant names from the Atharvaveda and other Vedas can be found in subsequent ayurveda literature. 35 The earliest recorded theoretical statements about the canonical models of disease in ayurveda occur in the earliest Buddhist Canon. 36 Practice edit ayurvedic doctors regard physical existence, mental existence, and personality as a unit, with each element being able to influence the others. Clarification needed This is a holistic approach used during diagnosis and therapy, and is a fundamental aspect of ayurveda. Another part of ayurvedic treatment says that there are channels ( srotas ) which transport fluids, and that the channels can be opened up by massage treatment using oils and Swedana (fomentation). Unhealthy channels are thought to cause disease. 37 diagnosis edit ayurveda has eight ways to diagnose illness, called Nadi (pulse mootra (urine mala (stool jihva (tongue shabda (speech Sparsha (touch Druk (vision and aakruti (appearance). 38 ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using the five senses. 39 For example, hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech.
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19 For example, to suppress sneezing is said to potentially give rise to shoulder pain. 30 However, people are also cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and tree measure when following nature's essay urges. 19 For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake, 31 sleep, and sexual intercourse. 19 ayurveda names seven basic tissues ( dhatu which are plasma ( rasa blood ( rakta muscles ( māmsa fat ( meda bone ( asthi marrow ( majja and semen ( shukra ). Like the medicine of classical antiquity, ayurveda has historically divided bodily substances into five classical elements (Sanskrit maha panchabhuta, viz. Earth, water, fire, air and ether. 32 There are also twenty gunas (qualities or characteristics) which are considered to be inherent in all substances.
ent bhūtavidyā : pacification of possessing spirits, and plan the people whose minds are affected by such possession Agadatantra : toxicology rasāyanatantra : rejuvenation and tonics for increasing lifespan, intellect and strength Vājīkaraṇatantra : aphrodisiacs and treatments for increasing the volume and viability of semen and. Principles and terminology edit further information: Mahābhūta Shown in the image is Nagarjuna, known chiefly for his doctrine of the madhyamaka (middle path). He wrote the medical works The hundred Prescriptions and The Precious Collection, among others. 27 The three doṣhas and the five elements from which they are composed. The word "ayurveda" is Sanskrit :, āyurveda, meaning knowledge of life and longevity. 25 The central theoretical ideas of ayurveda developed in the mid-first millennium bce, and show parallels with sākhya and vaiśeṣika philosophies, as well as with Buddhism and jainism. 28 29 Balance is emphasized, and suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness.
doṣas results in health, while inequality ( viṣamatva ) results in disease. Ayurveda treatises divide medicine into eight canonical components. Ayurveda practitioners had developed various medicinal preparations and surgical procedures from at least the beginning of the common era. 20 Contents Eight components edit The earliest classical Sanskrit works on ayurveda describe medicine as being divided into eight components (Skt. 21 22 This characterization of the physicians' art, "the medicine that has eight components" (Skt. Cikitsāyām aṣṭāgāyāṃ is first found in the sanskrit epic the mahābhārata, ca 4th century bce. 23 The components are: kāyacikitsā : general medicine, medicine of the body kaumāra-bhṛtya : the treatment of children, paediatrics ś alyatantra : surgical techniques and the extraction of foreign objects Śālākyatantra: treatment of ailments affecting ears, eyes, nose, mouth, etc.
Ancient ayurveda texts also taught surgical techniques, including rhinoplasty, kidney stone extractions, sutures, and the extraction of foreign objects. 9 10, although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances used in ayurveda might be developed into effective treatments, there resume is no scientific evidence that any are effective as currently practiced. 11, ayurveda medicine is considered pseudoscientific. 12, other researchers consider it a protoscience, or trans-science system instead. 13 14, in a 2008 study, close to 21 of ayurveda. And Indian-manufactured patent medicines sold through the Internet were found to contain toxic levels of heavy metals, specifically lead, mercury, and arsenic. 15 The public health implications of such metallic contaminants in India are unknown. 15 Some scholars assert that ayurveda originated in prehistoric times, 16 17 and that some of the concepts of ayurveda have existed from the time of the Indus Valley civilization or even earlier. 18 ayurveda developed significantly during the vedic period and later some of the non-Vedic systems such as Buddhism and jainism also developed medical concepts and practices that appear in the classical ayurveda texts.
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"Indian medicine" redirects here. For modern Indian medicine, see. Ayurveda ( /ɑjʊərvidə, -veɪ-/ ) 1 is a system of medicine with historical roots in the. Globalized and modernized practices derived from ayurveda traditions are a type of complementary or alternative medicine. 3 4, in countries beyond India, ayurveda therapies and practices have been integrated in general wellness applications and in some cases in medical use. 5, the main classical ayurveda texts begin with accounts of the transmission of medical knowledge from the gods to sages, and then to human physicians. 6, in, sushruta samhita sushruta's Compendium sushruta wrote that, dhanvantari, hindu god of ayurveda, incarnated himself as a king of Varanasi and taught medicine to a group of physicians, including Sushruta. Ayurveda therapies have varied and evolved over more than two millennia. Therapies are typically based on complex plan herbal compounds, minerals and metal substances (perhaps under the influence of early Indian alchemy or rasa shastra ).