Indian English typically follows British spelling and pronunciation as opposed to American, and books published in India reflect this phenomenon. Indian English literature, however, tends to utilise more internationally recognisable vocabulary then does colloquial Indian English, in the same way that American English literature does so as compared to American slang. India's only nobel laureate in literature was the bengali writer Rabindranath Tagore, who wrote some of his work originally in English, and did some of his own English translations from Bengali. India's best selling English-language novelists of all-time are the contemporary writers like chetan Bhagat, manjiri Prabhu and Ashok banker. More recent major writers in English who are either Indian or of Indian origin and derive much inspiration from Indian themes are. Narayan, vikram Seth, salman Rushdie, arundhati roy, raja rao, amitav ghosh, rohinton Mistry, vikram Chandra, mukul Kesavan, raj Kamal Jha, vikas Swarup, khushwant Singh, shashi Tharoor, nayantara sehgal, anita desai, kiran Desai, ashok banker, shashi deshpande, arnab Jan deka, jhumpa lahiri, kamala markandaya, dissertation gita mehta. In category of Indian writing in English is poetry. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and was responsible for the translations of his own work into English.
Along with Rabindranath Tagore and kazi nazrul Islam, he was one of the key figures of modern Bengali poetry, despite the fact that most of his works had been in publication posthumously. During his life, his poems were not widely circulated, but after his death his reputation grew to the extent that he became one of the most popular Bengali poet of the 20th century. Bengali is the second most commonly spoken language in India (after Hindi). As a result of the bengal Renaissance in the 19th and 20th centuries, many of India's most famous, and relatively recent, paper literature, poetry, and songs are in Bengali. In the history of Bengali literature there has been only one pathbreaking literary movement by a group of poets and artists who called themselves Hungryalists. Bhojpuri literature edit main article: Bhojpuri literature Chhattisgarhi literature edit literature in Chhattisgarh reflects the regional consciousness and the evolution of an identity distinct from others in Central India. The social problems of the lower castes/untouchables were highlighted in the writings of Khub Chand Baghel through his plays Jarnail Singh and Unch neech. English literature edit main article: Indian English literature further information: Indian English In the 20th century, several Indian writers have distinguished themselves not only in traditional Indian languages but also in English, a language inherited from the British. As a result of British colonisation, India has developed its own unique dialect of English known as Indian English.
The most internationally famous Bengali writer is Nobel laureate rabindranath Tagore, who received the nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 for his work "Gitanjali". He wrote the national anthem of India and Bangladesh namely, "Jana gana mana" and "Amar Sonar Bangla respectively. He was the first Asian who won the nobel Prize. Rabindranath has written enormous amount of poems, songs, essays, novels, plays and short stories. His songs remain popular and are still widely sung in Bengal. Kazi nazrul Islam, who is one generation younger than Tagore, is also equally popular, valuable, and influential in socio-cultural context of the bengal, though virtually unknown in foreign countries. And among later generation poets, jibanananda das is considered the most important figure. 8 Other famous Indian Bengali writers were Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay, bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, michael Madhusudan Dutt, sunil Gangopadhyay etc. Sukanta Bhattacharya ( ) was a bengali poet and playwright.
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Damodardev's disciple Bhattadev is acknowledged as the first Indian prose writer, who introduced the unique prose writing style in Assamese. Of the post-vaishnavite age of Assamese literature, notable modern Assamese writers are lakshminath bezbaruah, padmanath Gohain Baruah, hemchandra goswami, hem Chandra barua, atul Chandra hazarika, nalini bala devi, birendra kumar Bhattacharya, amulya barua, navakanta barua, syed Abdul Malik, bhabananda deka, jogesh Das, homen Borgohain, bhabendra. A comprehensive introductory book assamese language-literature sahityarathi lakshminath bezbaroa originally authored by leading Assamese littérateur of Awahon-Ramdhenu Era and pioneer Assam economist Bhabananda deka together with his three deputies, parikshit hazarika, upendra nath Goswami and Prabhat Chandra sarma, was published in 1968. This book was officially released in New Delhi on by then President of India dr zakir Hussain in commemoration of the birth centenary celebration of doyen of Assamese literature lakshminath bezbaroa. After almost half a century, this historic book has been recovered and re-edited by Assamese award-winning short-story writer novelist Arnab Jan deka, which was published by Assam foundation-India in 2014. 7 This second enlarged edition was officially released on 4 December 2014 on the occasion of 150th birth anniversary of lakshminath bezbaroa and 8th death Anniversary of Bhabananda deka by Great Britain-based bilingual magazine luit to Thames ( luitor Pora Thamsoloi ) editor Dr Karuna. Bangla literature edit bengali literature edit main article: Bengali literature see also: Bengali novels, bengali poetry, and Bengali science fiction Rabindranath Tagore, the author of many works, including Gitanjali and India's national anthem 'jana gana mana'.
He was awarded the noble Prize in Literature in 1913 for "his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the west." he was. The author of India's National Song 'vande mataram'. The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were buddhist hymns from the 8th century. Charyapada is in the oldest known written form of Bengali. The famous Bengali linguist Harprashad Shastri discovered the palm resume leaf Charyapada manuscript in the nepal royal court Library in 1907.
The Charyapadas are buddhist songs composed in the 8th to 12th centuries. These writings bear similarities to Oriya and Bengali languages as well. The phonological and morphological traits of these songs bear very strong resemblance to Assamese some of which are extant. After the Charyapadas, the period may again be split into (a) Pre-vaishnavite and (b) vaishnavite sub-periods. The earliest known Assamese writer is Hema saraswati, who wrote a small poem "Prahlada Charita".
In the time of the king Indranarayana (13501365) of Kamatapur the two poets Harihara vipra and kaviratna saraswati composed Asvamedha parva and jayadratha vadha respectively. Another poet named Rudra kandali translated Drona parva into Assamese. But the most well-known poet of the Pre-vaishnavite sub period is Madhav kandali, who rendered Valmiki's Ramayana into Assamese verse ( Kotha ramayana, 11th century) under the patronage of Mahamanikya, a kachari king of jayantapura. Assamese writers of vaishnavite periods had been Srimanta sankardev, madhabdev, damodardev, haridevand Bhattadev. Among these, srimanta sankardev has been widely acknowledged as the top Assamese littérateur of all-time, and generally acknowledged as the one who introduced drama, poetry, classical dance form called Satriya, classical music form called Borgeet, art and painting, stage enactment of drama called Bhaona and. His main disciples Madhabdev and Damodardev followed in his footsteps, and enriched Assamese literary world with their own contributions.
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Canto 13 of the Bhaṭikāvya 5 is written in what is called "like the vernacular" ( bhāṣāsama that is, it can be read in two languages simultaneously: Prakrit and Sanskrit. 6 Pali literature edit main article: Pali canon The pali canon is mostly of Indian origin. Later Pali literature however was mostly produced outside of the mainland homework Indian subcontinent, particularly in Sri lanka and southeast Asia. Pali literature includes Buddhist philosophical works, poetry and some grammatical works. Major works in Pali are jataka tales, dhammapada, atthakatha, and Mahavamsa. Some of the major Pali grammarians were kaccayana, moggallana and Vararuci (who wrote Prakrit Prakash ). Indian literature in common Indian languages edit Assamese literature edit main article: Assamese literature see also: Category:Assamese-language books, buranjis, and Assamese poetry The Charyapadas are often cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature.
Later poetic works include geeta govinda by jayadeva. Some other famous works are Chanakya 's Arthashastra and Vatsyayana 's Kamasutra. Prakrit literature edit The most notable Prakrit languages were the jain disaster Prakrit (Ardhamagadhi pali, maharashtri and Shauraseni. One of the earliest extant Prakrit works is Hāla 's anthology of poems in Maharashtri, the gāhā sattasaī, dating to the 3rd to 5th century. Kālidāsa and Harsha also used Maharashtri in some of their plays and poetry. In jainism, many svetambara works were written in Maharashtri. Many of aśvaghoṣa 's plays were written in Shauraseni as were a sizable number of jain works and Rajasekhara 's Karpuramanjari.
Contents Indian literature in archaic Indian languages edit vedic literature edit main article: Vedas Examples of early works written in Vedic Sanskrit include the holy hindu texts, such as the core vedas. Other examples include the sulba sutras, which are some of the earliest texts on geometry. Epic Sanskrit literature edit main article: Indian epic poetry ved vyasa 's Mahabharata and Valmiki 's Ramayana, written in Epic Sanskrit, are regarded as the greatest Sanskrit epics. Classical Sanskrit literature edit main article: Sanskrit literature The famous poet and playwright Kālidāsa wrote one epic: Raghuvamsha ( Dynasty of Raghu ) ; it was written in Classical Sanskrit rather than Epic Sanskrit. Other examples of works written in Classical Sanskrit include the pāṇini 's Ashtadhyayi which standardized the grammar and phonetics of Classical Sanskrit. The laws of Manu is a controversial text in Hinduism. Kālidāsa is often considered to be the greatest playwright in Sanskrit literature, and one of the greatest poets in Sanskrit literature, whose recognition of Shakuntala and Meghaduuta are the most famous Sanskrit plays. Some other famous plays were Mricchakatika by Shudraka, svapna vasavadattam by Bhasa, and Ratnavali by Sri harsha.
Ramayana and, mahabharata appeared towards the end of the 2nd millennium bce. Classical Sanskrit literature developed rapidly during the first few centuries of the first millennium bce, 1 as did the, tamil, sangam literature, homework and the, pāli canon. In the medieval period, literature. Kannada and, telugu appeared in the 9th and 11th centuries respectively. 2, later, literature in, marathi, odia and, bengali appeared. Thereafter literature in various dialects. Hindi, persian and Urdu began to appear as well. Early in the 20th century, bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore became India's first Nobel laureate. In contemporary Indian literature, there are two major literary awards; these are the sahitya akademi fellowship and the Jnanpith Award.
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For the journal, see, indian Literature (journal). Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the. Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the, republic of India thereafter. The, republic of India has 22 officially recognized languages. The earliest wallpaper works of Indian literature were orally transmitted. Sanskrit literature begins with the oral literature of the. Rig Veda a collection of sacred hymns dating to the period bce.