Thiers talked instead to the duke's wife, marie-amélie, and sister-in-law, madame Adelaide. Thiers explained that they wanted a representative monarchy and a new dynasty, and that everyone knew that louis-Philippe was not ambitious and had not sought the crown for himself. Madame Adelaide agreed to take the proposition to the duke. The duke returned to neuilly at ten in the evening and learned what had happened trunk from his wife. He put on a tricolor ribbon, the symbol of the opposition, and rode to the palais-royal, where Thiers, the marquis de lafayette and Jacques Laffitte were waiting. Together, they persuaded him to take the throne and discussed how it would be done. That afternoon, they rode to the hotel de ville.
Later that morning, the prefect of police arrived at the national with orders to put the newspaper out of business. He brought workers who seized key mechanical parts of the printing presses, good and locked the building. As soon as the prefect left, the same workers who had locked the building and disabled the presses re-opened it and put the presses back into service. Anti-royalist demonstrations broke out in many parts of Paris. Thiers and his allies briefly left the city to avoid arrest, but soon came back. Thiers noticed that the anti-royalist demonstrators had attacked shops which had signs showing that they were patronized by Charles x, but not those which advertised they were patronized by the king's cousin, louis-Philippe, the duke of Orleans, whose family had been sympathetic to the French. Without consulting with louis-Philippe, whom he had never met, Thiers immediately had posters printed and put up around Paris declaring that the duke of Orleans was a friend of the people, and he should take the crown. With the painter Ary Scheffer, a friend of louis-Philippe, he rode on horseback immediately to the duke's residence in neuilly, but found that the duke had left and was in hiding at another chateau in raincy.
On, he raised the temperature, warning that if the deputies put obstacles in his path, he would "find the force to overcome them in my resolution to maintain the public peace, with the full confidence of the French and the love they have also shown. The French flag was hoisted over Algiers on, and new elections were held from 13 to 19 July. The elections were a disaster for the king; the opposition won 270 seats, against 145 supporters of the king. The opponents were, for the most part, not republicans; they simply wanted a constitutional monarchy. The king responded, however, on 25 July with new decrees dissolving the Chamber of Deputies, changing the election laws, and putting restrictions on the press. The king, confident in his popularity, neglected to put the army on alert or to bring in soldiers to maintain order. The duke of Orleans arrives at the hotel de ville thiers reacted immediately and forcefully. On the front page of his newspaper, the national, he declared: "The legal regime is over; that of force has begun; in the situation in which we are placed, obedience has ceased to be an obligation." he persuaded the editors of the other major liberal.
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It praised the principles, leaders and accomplishments of water the 1789 revolution (though not the later Terror and condemned the monarchy, aristocracy and clergy for their inability to change. The book played a notable role in undermining the legitimacy of the bourbon regime of Charles x, and bringing about the july revolution of 1830. The work was praised by the French authors Chateaubriand, stendhal and sainte-beuve, was translated into English (1838) and Spanish (1889 and won him a seat in the Académie française in 1834. It was less appreciated by British critics, in large part because of his favorable view of the French revolution and of Napoleon Bonaparte. The British historian Thomas Carlyle, who wrote his own history of the French revolution, complained that it "was far as possible from meriting its high reputation though he admitted that Thiers is "a brisk man in his way, and will tell you much if you. The historian george saintsbury wrote in the Encyclopædia britannica Eleventh Edition (1911 "Thiers' historical work is marked by extreme inaccuracy, by prejudice which passes the limits of accidental unfairness, and by an almost complete indifference to the merits as compared with the successes of his. Thiers had been planning a literary career, but in August 1829, when the king appointed the ultra-royalist, polignac as his new prime minister, Thiers began to write increasingly fierce attacks on the royal government.
In a celebrated article, he wrote that "The king rules, but does not govern and called for a constitutional monarchy. If the king did not accept it, he proposed simply changing the king, as the English had done in 1688. When the constitutionelle hesitated to publish some of his more energetic attacks on the government, Thiers, with Armand Carrel, mignet, stendhal and others, started a new opposition newspaper, the national, whose first issue appeared on The government responded by taking the newspaper to court, charging. It was fined three thousand francs. The writer Lamartine left a vivid description of Thiers, with whom he had dinner at this time: "He spoke first; he spoke last; he hardly listened to the replies; but he spoke with an accuracy, with an audacity, with a fecundity of ideas, that excused. It was his spirit and heart which ere was enough gunpowder in his nature to explode six governments." In August 1829, Charles X decided to show his authority over the unruly Chamber of Deputies, and named a fervent royalist, jules de polignac as his new.
He met Stendhal, the Prussian geographer Alexander Von Humboldt, the famed banker Jacques Laffitte, the author and historian Prosper Mérimée, the painter François Gérard ; he was the first journalist to write a glowing review for a young new painter, eugene delacroix. When a revolution broke out in Spain in 1822, he traveled as far as the pyrenees to write about. He soon he collected and published a volume of his articles, the first on the salon of 1822, the second on his trip to the pyrenees. He was very well paid by johann Friedrich Cotta, the part-proprietor of the constitutionnel. Most important for his future career, he was introduced to talleyrand, the former foreign minister of Napoleon, who became his political guide and mentor.
Under the tutelage of Talleyrand, Thiers became an active member of the circle of opponents of the bourbon regime, which included the financier Lafitte and the marquis de lafayette. Historian edit he began his celebrated Histoire de la révolution française, which founded his literary reputation and boosted his political career. The first two volumes appeared in 1823, the last two (of ten) in 1827. The complete work of ten volumes sold ten thousand sets, an enormous number for the time. It went through four more editions, which earned him 57,000 francs (the equivalent of more than a million 1983 francs). The history of Thiers was particularly popular in liberal circles and among younger Parisians.
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Thanks to his letters of recommendation, he was able to get a position as a secretary to the prominent philanthropist and social reformer, the duke of la rochefoucalt-liancourt ; the man who in 1789, when King louis xvi, asked if there was a revolt. He was then introduced to Charles-guillaume Étienne, the editor of the le constitutionnel, the most influential political and literary journal in Paris at the time. The newspaper was the leading opposition journal against the royalist government; it had 44,000 subscribers, compared with just 12,800 subscribers for interests the royalist, or legitimist, press. He offered Etienne an essay on the political figure François guizot, thiers' future rival, which was original, polemical and aggressive, and caused a stir in Paris literary and political circles. Etienne commissioned Thiers as a regular contributor. At the same time that Thiers began writing, his friend from the law school in Aix, mignet, was hired as a writer for another leading opposition journal, the courier Français, and then worked for a major Paris book publisher. Within four months of his arrival in Paris, Thiers was one of the most read-journalists in the city. Prince talleyrand, thiers' political mentor, in 1828 he wrote about politics, art, literature, and history. His literary reputation introduced him into the most influential literary and political salons in Paris.
His father abandoned Adolphe and summary his mother shortly after he was born. (see section below on Family and personal life.) His mother had little money, but Thiers was able to receive a good education thanks to financial aid from an aunt and a godmother. He won admission to a lycée of Marseille through a competitive examination, and then, with the help of his relatives, was able to enter the faculty of law in Aix-en-Provence in november 1815. While studying at the faculty of law he began his lifelong friendship with François Mignet. They both were admitted to the bar in 1818, and Thiers made a precarious living as a lawyer for three years. He showed a strong interest in literature, and won an academic prize of five hundred francs for an essay on the marquis de vauvenargues. Nonetheless, he was unhappy with his life in Aix. He wrote to his friend teulon, "I am without fortune, without status, and without any hope of having either here." he decided to move to paris and to try to make a career as a writer. Journalism edit The duke of la rochefoucauld, Thiers' first employer in Paris In 1821, the 24-year-old Thiers moved to paris with just 100 francs in his pocket.
on, and was replaced as President. Patrice de mac-Mahon, duke of Magenta. When he died in 1877, his funeral became a major political event; the procession was led by two of the leaders of the republican movement, victor Hugo and, leon Gambetta, who, at the time of his death, were his allies against the conservative monarchists. He was also a notable literary figure, the author of a very successful ten-volume history of the. French revolution, and a twenty-volume history of the consulate and Empire. In 1834 he was elected to the. Contents, biography edit, early life edit, adolphe Thiers was born on, during the rule of the. His grandfather, louis-Charles Thiers, was an attorney in Aix-en-Provence, who moved to marseille to become the guardian of the city archives, and secretary-general of the city administration, though he lost that post during the French revolution. His father was a businessman and occasional government official under Napoleon, who frequently was in trouble with the law.
He was twist first a supporter, then a vocal opponent of louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (who served from 1848 to 1852 as President of the second Republic and as Emperor. Napoleon iii, reigning from 1852 to 1871). When Napoleon iii seized power, Thiers was arrested and briefly expelled from France. He then returned and became an opponent of the government. Following the defeat of France in the. Franco-german War, which Thiers opposed, he was elected chief executive of the new French government and negotiated the end of the war. Paris Commune seized power in March 1871, Thiers gave the orders to the army for its suppression. At the age of seventy-four, he was named President of the republic by the French National Assembly in August 1871.
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Marie joseph louis Adolphe Thiers (French: lwi adɔlf tjɛʁ ; 3 September 1877) was a french statesman and historian. He was the second elected. President of France, and the first President of the. Thiers was a key figure in the. July revolution of 1830, which overthrew the bourbon monarchy, and the. French revolution of 1848, which established the, second French Republic. He served as a prime minister in 1836, 18, dedicated the. Arc de Triomphe, and arranged resume the return to France of the ashes.