It is because of this, that the first European implementation of standardized testing did not occur in Europe proper, but in British India. 7 Inspired by the Chinese use of standardized testing, in the early 19th century, british "company managers hired and promoted employees based on competitive examinations in order to prevent corruption and favoritism." 7 This practice of standardized testing was later adopted in the late 19th. The parliamentary debates that ensued made many references to the "Chinese mandarin system." 6 It was from Britain that standardized testing spread, not only throughout the British Commonwealth, but to europe and then America. 6 Its spread was fueled by the Industrial revolution. The increase in number of school students during and after the Industrial revolution, as a result of compulsory education laws, decreased the use of open-ended assessment, which was harder to mass-produce and assess objectively due to its intrinsically subjective nature. For instance, measurement error is easy to determine in standardized testing, whereas in open-ended assessment, graders have more individual discretion and therefore are more likely to produce unfair results through unconscious bias. When the score depends upon the graders' individual preferences, then the result an individual student receives depends upon who grades dissertation the test. More recently, standardized testing has been shaped in part, by the ease and low cost of grading of multiple-choice tests by computer. Though the process is more difficult than grading multiple-choice tests electronically, essays can also be graded by computer.
History edit, china edit, main article: Imperial examination The earliest evidence of standardized testing was in China, during the han Dynasty, 5 where the imperial examinations covered the six Arts which included music, archery, horsemanship, arithmetic, writing, make and knowledge of the rituals and ceremonies. These exams were used to select employees for the state bureaucracy. Later, sections on military strategies, civil law, revenue and taxation, agriculture and geography were added to the testing. In this form, the examinations were institutionalized for more than a millennium. Today, standardized testing remains widely used, most famously in the gaokao system. Uk edit Standardized testing was introduced into europe in the early 19th century, modeled on the Chinese mandarin examinations, 6 through the advocacy of British colonial administrators, the most "persistent" of which was Britain's consul in guangzhou, china, thomas taylor meadows. 6 meadows warned of the collapse of the British Empire if standardized testing was not implemented throughout the empire immediately. 6 Prior to their adoption, standardized testing was not traditionally a part of Western pedagogy; based on the skeptical and open-ended tradition of debate inherited from Ancient Greece, western academia favored non-standardized assessments using essays written by students.
3, the prevalence of standardized testing in formal education has also been criticized for many reasons. Contents, definition edit, the definition of a standardized test has somewhat changed over time. 4, in 1960, standardized tests were defined as those tests in which the conditions and content were equal for everyone taking the test, regardless of when, where, or by whom the test was given or graded. The purpose of this standardization is to make sure that the scores reliably indicate the abilities or skills being measured, and not other things, such as different instructions about what to do if the test taker does not know the answer to a question. 4, by the beginning of the 21st century, the focus shifted away from a strict sameness of conditions towards equal fairness of conditions. For example, a test taker with a broken wrist might write more slowly because of the injury, and it would be more fair, and produce a more reliable understanding of the test taker's actual knowledge, if that person were given a few more minutes. However, if the purpose of the test is to see how quickly the student could write, then this would become a modification of the content, and no longer a standardized test.
Advantages of learning English - essay forum
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard manner. Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent 1 and are administered and scored in a predetermined, standard manner. 2, any test in which the same test is given in the same manner to all test takers, and graded in the same manner for everyone, is a standardized test. Standardized tests do not need to be high-stakes tests, time-limited tests, or multiple-choice tests. The questions can be simple or complex.
The subject matter among school-age students is frequently academic skills, but a standardized test can be given on nearly any topic, including driving tests, creativity, personality, professional ethics, or other attributes. The opposite of standardized testing is non-standardized testing, in which either significantly different sederhana tests are given to different test takers, or the same test is assigned under significantly different conditions (e.g., one group is permitted far less time to complete the test than the next. Most existing everyday quizzes and tests taken by students typically meet the definition of a standardized test: everyone in the class takes the same test, at the same time, under the same circumstances, and all of the students are graded by their teacher in the same. However, the term standardized test is most commonly used to refer to tests that are given to larger groups, such as a test taken by all adults who wish to acquire a license to have a particular kind of job, or by all students. Standardized tests are perceived as being fairer than non-standardized tests, because everyone gets the same test and the same grading system. This is fairer and more objective than a system in which some students get an easier test and others get a more difficult test. The consistency also permits more reliable comparison of outcomes across all test takers, because everyone is taking the same test.
But be careful - mobile phones might also be bad for you! P/s: Plz help me to correct this essay since next week i'm going to do final exam. How can i reduce this essay because i should write from 150 to 180 words and this essay has about 291 words. Thank you for helping. I ran this through a word doc to get a word count.
This comes in at 190 words. Because of their convenience, mobile phones have become universally popular. Excessive use of mobile phones has been accused of causing dizziness, and "radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum says ( person's name and title. ) And drivers distracted by talking on their cell phones are more likely to get into car crashes. Young adults in Poland sit for their. The matura is standardized so that universities can easily compare results from students across the entire country.
The benefits Of learning English Essay - 583 Words
And "radiations emitted from the way phone are dead harmful for the eardrum says ( person's name and title. ) (note: Attach this after the word "dizziness" in the sentence above). It is essential not good for you and others. Owning a mobile phone in your hand is you can solve many issues and hold most of information around the world. Even though is not good for your health and you have to protect yourself from bad effects of mobile phones if you choose to have one. this little summary is disorganized and poorly thought out. Mobile phones solve problems and provide new channels of communication. We can access all add the world's information no matter where we are, just by using a device small enough to fit into one hand.
blood-brain barrier is not a harmful effect. It is a part of the body. Excessive use of mobile phones has been accused of causing dizziness, (note: Connect this sentence with the one after the next). In addition, when you use mobile phones while you are driving, you will get an accident. get in an accident (note: move this part to after the next one). And drivers distracted by talking on resume their cell phones are more likely to get into car crashes. Moreover, radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum, has proved by many scientist. it has not been proved by many scientists.
picture life as it was before the mobile phone. On the other hand, there are also disadvantages. don't say both "on the other hand" and "also". But there are disadvantages to the use of mobile phones. Using a lot mobile phone can harm your brain, particularly teenager and children who are under 16 years old. using mobile phones a lot can harm your brain spell out the number 16 as a word. Using mobile phones is said to be harmful to the brain, especially for those who are under the age of sixteen. If you use mobile phones too much, you will get bad effects like dizzy, blood-brain barrier, or ears problems.
It is maybe the main reason why almost all people today choose to own a mobile phone. reduce the word count by deleting the repetition of the same idea. you have used all these words to point out that mobile phones are mobile. With them we can call anyone at any time, independent of a landline connection. From the customers point of view, it is obvious that mobile phones assist you in business the a lot, such as, make schedule of working, surf the internet, and keep in touch with their companies. "assist you in business a lot, such. " should be "assist you in business. " don't shift from "we" to "you" "make schedule of working" does not really carry a meaning surfing the internet belongs in the next sentence. Our cellies keep us in constant communication with our families, our friends, and our businesses.
Benefit of learning English Essay - 317 Words - studyMode
Mobile Phones - a great invention? Mobile Phones - a flawed Invention? Mobile phone is a good technology which is not lacking from our lives. This report will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using book mobile phones. We are trimming words already. Today, mobile phone has become popular to everybody since it is very convenient. phoneS have popular for everybody since they are delete "very because of their convenience, mobile phones have become universally popular. The most advantage of having a mobile phone is you can communicate to your family and your friends no matter what where you are. For instance, you can contact easily to your friends by calling or sending messages everywhere without electricity.