All argumentative papers require you to link each point in the argument back to the thesis. Without such links, your reader will be unable to see how new sections logically and systematically advance your argument. In a compare-and contrast, you also need writing to make links between a and b in the body of your essay if you want your paper to hold together. To make these links, use transitional expressions of comparison and contrast ( similarly, moreover, likewise, on the contrary, conversely, on the other hand ) and contrastive vocabulary (in the example below, southerner/Northerner ). As a girl raised in the faded glory of the Old south, amid mystical tales of magnolias and moonlight, the mother remains part of a dying generation. Surrounded by hard times, racial conflict, and limited opportunities, julian, on the other hand, feels repelled by the provincial nature of home, and represents a new southerner, one who sees his native land through a condescending Northerner's eyes. Copyright 1998, kerry walk, for the Writing Center at Harvard University. Use the guidelines below to learn how to use literary"tions.
In fact, your paper will be more interesting if you get to the heart of your argument as quickly as possible. Thus, a paper on two evolutionary theorists' different interpretations of specific archaeological findings might have as few as two or three sentences in the introduction on similarities and at most a paragraph or two to set up the contrast between the theorists' positions. The rest of the paper, whether organized text- by-text or point-by-point, will treat the two theorists' differences. You can organize a classic compare-and-contrast paper either text-by-text or point-by-point. But in a "lens" comparison, in which you spend significantly less time on A (the lens) than on B (the focal text you almost always organize text-by-text. That's because a and b are not strictly comparable: a is will merely a tool for helping you discover whether or not B's nature is actually what expectations have led you to believe. Linking of a and.
Your introduction will include your frame of reference, grounds for comparison, and thesis. There are two basic ways to organize the body of your paper. In text-by-text, you discuss all of a, then all. In point-by-point, you alternate points about A with comparable points about. If you think that b extends a, you'll probably use a text-by-text scheme; if you see a and b engaged in debate, a point-by-point scheme will draw attention to the conflict. Be aware, however, that the point-by- point scheme can come off as a ping-pong game. You can avoid this effect by grouping more than one point together, thereby cutting down on the number of times you alternate from A. But no matter which organizational scheme you choose, you need not give equal time to similarities and differences.
Lens essay thesis - college paper Service
The rationale behind your choice, the grounds for comparison, lets your reader know why your choice is deliberate and meaningful, not random. For instance, in a paper asking how the "discourse of domesticity" has been used in the abortion debate, the grounds for comparison are obvious; the issue has two conflicting sides, pro-choice and pro-life. In a paper comparing the effects of acid rain on two forest sites, your choice of sites is less obvious. A paper focusing on similarly aged forest stands in maine and the catskills will be set up differently from one comparing a new forest stand thank in the White mountains with an old forest in the same region. You need to indicate the reasoning behind your choice. The grounds for comparison anticipates the comparative nature of your thesis.
As in any argumentative paper, your thesis statement will convey the gist of your argument, which necessarily follows from your frame of reference. But in a compare-and-contrast, the thesis depends on how the two things you've chosen to compare actually relate to one another. Do they extend, corroborate, complicate, contradict, correct, or debate one another? In the most common compare-and-contrast paper—one focusing on differences—you can indicate the precise relationship between a and B by using the word "whereas" in your thesis: Whereas, camus perceives ideology as secondary to the need to address a specific historical moment of colonialism, fanon perceives. Whether your paper focuses primarily on difference or similarity, you need to make the relationship between a and B clear in your thesis. This relationship is at the heart of any compare-and-contrast paper.
Often, lens comparisons take time into account: earlier texts, events, or historical figures may illuminate later ones, and vice versa. Faced with a daunting list of seemingly unrelated similarities and differences, you may feel confused about how to construct a paper that isn't just a mechanical exercise in which you first state all the features that a and B have in common, and then state. Predictably, the thesis of such a paper is usually an assertion that a and b are very similar yet not so similar after all. To write a good compare-and-contrast paper, you must take your raw data—the similarities and differences you've observed—and make them cohere into a meaningful argument. Here are the five elements required. This is the context within which you place the two things you plan to compare and contrast; it is the umbrella under which you have grouped them.
The frame of reference may consist of an idea, theme, question, problem, or theory; a group of similar things from which you extract two for special attention; biographical or historical information. The best frames of reference are constructed from specific sources rather than your own thoughts or observations. Thus, in a paper comparing how two writers redefine social norms of masculinity, you would be better off"ng a sociologist on the topic of masculinity than spinning out potentially banal-sounding theories of your own. Most assignments tell you exactly what the frame of reference should be, and most courses supply sources for constructing. If you encounter an assignment that fails to provide a frame of reference, you must come up with one on your own. A paper without such a context would have no angle on the material, no focus or frame for the writer to propose a meaningful argument. Let's say you're writing a paper on global food distribution, and you've chosen to compare apples and oranges. Why these particular fruits? Why not pears and bananas?
Essay on Ender's game — 717129
Vary your Approach: After demonstrating literary analysis, offer students multiple opportunities to engage with a text, both collaboratively and individually. Expeditionary learning has some particularly helpful resources. Throughout your academic career, you'll be asked to write papers in which you compare and contrast two evernote things: two texts, two theories, two historical figures, two scientific processes, and. "Classic" compare-and-contrast papers, in which you weight a and b equally, may be about two similar things that have crucial differences (two pesticides with different effects on the environment) or two similar things that have crucial differences, yet turn out to have surprising commonalities (two. In the "lens" (or "keyhole comparison, in which you weight A less heavily than b, you use a as a lens through which to view. Just as looking through a pair of glasses changes the way you see an object, using a as a framework for understanding B changes the way you see. Lens comparisons are useful for illuminating, critiquing, or challenging the stability of a thing that, before the analysis, seemed perfectly understood.
This provides a guide for students to better grasp how to approach a text. Model the Writing and reading Connection: Annotate a text with a document camera and model self-questioning strategies. There is plenty of research supporting the reading-writing connection. Have students take notes and jot down observations of what they notice as you are modeling. Teach Literary Theory Through Collaborative inquiry: my students enjoyed learning about literary theory and seeing a text through a feminist, new Critical, or postcolonial lens, for example. Critical Encounters in Secondary English, pulau deborah Appleman says that critical lenses provide students with a way of reading their world. Students can work in assigned groups to analyze a text through a particular lens and present their analysis to their classmates through a medium of their choice.
school, students need to become increasingly facile with language and literature, developing their vocabulary and reading increasingly complex texts. For example, in grades 11 and 12, one of the expectations is for students to cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters. How can this be accomplished? In writing, in class discussions, in all forms of discourse, how can students develop agency in literary analysis? And how can the right instructional moves set the stage for agency for all students? I found that my students would gain a better understanding when I modeled my own approach to deriving meaning from a text—sometimes with a different text that was similar in form or thematically related to what they were reading. Explicitly teaching students a variety of approaches provided them with tools they were able to use and apply across a variety of tasks, and this didnt have to come in the form of a lecture. Here are four strategies i used in my own classroom to support literary analysis in grades 912: Think Aloud: Model for students in real time how you would approach the analysis of a similar text to the one being discussed by the class.
Through direct instruction and multiple opportunities to grapple with texts, my students were able to analyze those texts more deeply and with more confidence. One of the best ways to foster textual analysis is through meaningful classroom conversations. This presents a unique opportunity for developing agency in students. Dialoguing Across Cultures, Identities, and learning, bob Fecho and Jennifer Clifton say that education is about change—of minds, perspectives, values, understandings, meanings, selves—really desk all tools through which we construct cultures and identity. With the right tools, literary analysis can provide the opportunity to engage students in activities that will shape their sense of themselves in the world, and provide them with opportunities to evolve through exploration of text and classroom discourse. I propose modeling the process of literary analysis through explicit mini-lessons that then lead into students own analysis. Over the past few decades, instructional practices have shifted away from teacher-as-lecturer and toward student-centered practices, collaborative opportunities, and inquiry-based approaches. No more telling as teaching, cris tovani and Elizabeth Birr Moje make an important distinction about the practice of lecturing being more efficient than effective.
Essay in 2018: Introduction, outline
A line from Umberto Ecos, six mba Walks in the fictional woods, every text, after all, is a lazy machine asking the reader to do some of its work, speaks directly to the beauty and challenge behind teaching literary analysis. Literary analysis is something we must do, not something the text does for us, which is why students must actively learn strategies for. There are a number of strategies teachers can use to support literary analysis in the classroom. Direct, explicit instruction is one example that can be beneficial to the process. Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient teaching, anita Archer and Charles Hughes define explicit instruction as a structured, systematic, and effective approach to teaching skills. Its an unambiguous and direct approach to teaching that includes both instructional design and delivery processes. I found that through explicit instruction and modeling, my students understood the concepts behind my analysis, and some of their difficulties were addressed as modeling literary analysis made the activity tangible. But modeling does not mean lecturing. Students need to engage with the concepts in a variety of ways.