Early buddhism consciously created a mythology to give meaning to its practices and beliefs. Even the advent of Buddhism is mythologized in the tale of the Emperor Ming. His dream of a golden man who could fly led him to dispatch messengers to Afghanistan to bring back the buddhist scriptures. This myth is similar to many creation myths worldwide, in which the world is formed out of the body of a primal being. In the beginning there was darkness everywhere, and Chaos ruled. Within the darkness there formed an egg, and inside the egg the giant Pangu came into being. For aeons, safely inside the egg, pangu slept and grew. When he had grown to gigantic size he stretched his huge limbs and in so doing broke the egg. The lighter parts essay of the egg floated upwards to form the heavens and the denser parts sank downwards, to become the earth.
A central quest within taoist practices is the search for immortality - literal, physical immortality. The sense of an interplay between natural law and the abstract laws prevailing in the cosmos, is held in common by shamanism and taoism. Taoism searched essay for balance within these forces and enshrined the concept that change cannot be forced, only experienced and assimilated. Confucianism, confucius lived in the sixth century bce, a time of considerable political unrest and feuding. He taught the virtues of order, structure and correct behaviour, which was underpinned by a rigid notion of hierarchy, involving strict filial devotion. Confucian notions of hierarchy are evident in the bureaucratic pantheon of Chinese myths. Buddhism, buddhism was introduced to China in the first century ce and has been adapted by the Chinese so that the mythologies of the indigenous faiths and the imported are intertwined.
Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. And Today: mir cosmonauts Use fisher Space pens For Their Writing needs". Archived from the original. Curtin, ciara (December 20, 2006). "Fact or Fiction?: nasa spent Millions to develop a pen that would Write in Space, whereas the soviet Cosmonauts Used a pencil". Duque, pedro (October 23, 2003). "Apollo 11 Image library: Landing Site maps/Images".
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The ink is forced out by compressed nitrogen at a pressure of nearly 35 psi (240 kpa and it functions at altitudes up to 12,500 feet (3800 m) and at temperatures from 30 to 250 southampton F (35 to 120 C). However, it is more expensive than the aforementioned alternatives. It has been used by both nasa and soviet/Russian astronauts on Apollo, shuttle, mir, 6 and iss missions. References edit "Is it true that nasa spent thousands of dollars developing a space pen, whereas the russians just took a pencil?". Retrieved 2 november 2012.
"The fisher Space pen". Steve garber, nasa history web Curator. Retrieved "Cosmonaut Alexei leonov testing out his first Fisher Space pen back in 1968". Retrieved October 4, 2013. "Just the faq ma'am".
There are no wooden components which might catch fire and create dust. However, the pencil lead still creates graphite dust that conducts electricity. Grease pencils on plastic slates were used by the soviet space program as an early substitute for wood pencils. It is simple with no moving parts. The paper shroud is peeled back when needed. The disadvantage is that the paper wrapper has to be disposed.
Writing done with the grease pencil is also not as durable as ink on paper. Ballpoint pens have been used by soviet and then Russian space programs as a substitute for grease pencils as well as nasa and esa. The pens are cheap, use paper (which is easily available and writing done using pen is more permanent than that done with graphite pencils and grease pencils, which makes the ball point pen more suitable for log books and scientific note books. However, the ink is indelible, and depending on composition is subject to outgassing and temperature variations. Felt-tip pens were used by nasa astronauts in the Apollo missions. However, wick-based instruments are designed around low viscosity, and thus operating temperature and pressure. Writing instruments specifically intended for space writing edit The fisher Space pen is a gas-charged ball point pen that is rugged and works in a wider variety of conditions, such as zero gravity, vacuum and extreme temperatures. Its thixotropic ink and vent-free cartridge release no significant vapor at common temperatures and low pressures.
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While the soyuz spacecraft had.7 psi (101 kPa) design pressure, and could use its book orbital module as an airlock, the orbital module would be deleted for planned lunar missions. In any case, a pen which was insensitive to pressure and temperature would eliminate the issue (including accidental depressurizations provide a margin, and allow the ability to record during extravehicular activities. Pre-existing writing instruments edit The wood pencil has been used for writing by nasa and soviet space programs from the start. It is simple with no moving parts, except for the sharpener. However, wood, graphite, and rubber (in the eraser ) are all combustible and create dust. Graphite, in particular, both burns and produces dust that conducts electricity. The mechanical pencil has been used by nasa starting in the 1960s Gemini program. It can be made to be as wide as the width of astronauts' gloves, yet maintain its light weight.wallpaper
Faced with these requirements, pencils or other non-permanent recordkeeping methods are unsatisfactory. The act of taking permanent, high-integrity documentation itself deters kludges, workarounds, and " go fever ". The Apollo 1 investigation uncovered procedural and workmanship deficiencies in multiple areas, up to procedures on the pad. Pressure and temperature edit At sea level, temperature is moderated by the thick atmosphere. As air pressure falls, temperatures can swing more dramatically. Many early manned missions operated at below standard pressure, to decrease the stresses (and thus, mass) of their capsules. Many did not have separate airlocks, instead exposing the entire cabin to hard vacuum at times. Low pressures also exacerbate contamination writing issues, as substances acceptable at standard conditions may begin outgassing at lower pressures or higher temperatures.
cabin burned within seconds, killing all three crew. Anatoly solovyev flew with Space pens starting in the '80s and states "pencil lead d is not good in space capsule; very dangerous to have metal lead particles in zero gravity". 5, mission assurance and quality records edit, main article: Mission assurance see also: Life-critical system and System engineering Strict documentation requirements accompany anything as complex as a large-scale aerospace demonstration, let alone a manned spaceflight. Quality assurance records document individual parts, and instances of procedures, for deviances. Low production and flight rates generally result in high variance; most spacecraft designs (to say nothing of individual spacecraft) fly so infrequently that they are considered experimental aircraft. When combined with the stringent weight drivers of orbital and deep-space flight, the quality-control demands are high. Change control records track the evolution of hardware and procedures from their ground testing, initial flights, through necessary corrections and midlife revision and upgrades, and on to retention of engineering knowledge for later programs, and any incident investigations. When the flight also has scientific or engineering science objectives, low-quality data may affect mission success directly.
Any shedding, including wood, graphite, and ink vapors and droplets, may become a risk. In the case of a manned capsule, the much smaller recirculating volume, combined with microgravity and an even greater difficulty of resupply, make these requirements even more critical. Release of wood shavings, graphite dust, broken graphite tips, and ink compounds are a dangerous flight hazard. Lack of gravity makes objects drift, even with air filtration. Any conductive material is a threat to electronics, including the electromechanical switches in use during early manned space programs. Nonconductive particles may also hamper switch contacts, such as normally-open and rotary mechanisms. Drifting particles are a threat to the eyes (and to a lesser extent an inhalation threat which may risk execution of a critical procedure. Personnel may don protective gear, but both ground and flight crews are more comfortable and more productive " in shirtsleeves ". Fisher of Fisher Pen Company recounts paperless that pencils were 'too dangerous to use in space'.
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Notes on a map written with a felt-tip pen. Michael Collins while in orbit around the moon. Several instruments have been used to write in outer space, including different types of pencils and pens. Some of them have been unmodified versions of conventional writing instruments; others tree have been invented specifically to counter the problems with writing in space conditions. A common urban legend states that, faced with the fact that ball-point pens would not write in zero-gravity, nasa spent a large amount of money to develop a pen that would write in the conditions experienced during spaceflight (the result purportedly being the fisher Space. The fisher Space pen was actually developed independently in a private organization in the 1960s. 1 2 3, contents, mission requirements edit, space versus ground recordkeeping presents several serious issues: Contamination control edit, main article: Contamination control, see also: Apollo. As with submarines before them, space capsules are closed environments, subject to strict contamination requirements. Incoming material is screened for mission threats.