Later, his policies promoted social, health and administrative reforms in the country. It is rumored that he was a mole of cia in Indira gandhi led cabinet citation needed. He also revealed that the r aw is well aware of pakistan's Nuclear activity in Kahuta to the pakistani general paper Muhammad zia-ul-Haq in a telephonic conversation 9 Decimation of r aw edit morarji desai had described the research and Analysis Wing (r aw india's external. He closed down much of the agency, and reduced its budget and operations, 10 such as closing its Information division. Raman, the former head of the counter-Terrorism division of r aw and noted security analyst, reveals that, in an informal discussion, morarji desai indiscreetly told pakistan's Chief Martial Law Administrator General zia ul-Haq that his government was well aware of pakistan's nuclear development. 9 Retirement edit In 1979, raj Narain and Charan Singh pulled out of the janata party, forcing Desai to resign from office and retire from politics. The chief reason for the collapse was the demand by the duo and other left leaning members like madhu limaye, krishan Kant and george fernandes that no member of the janata party could simultaneously be a member of an alternative social or political organisation.
However, the janata party coalition, was full of personal and policy friction and thus failed to achieve much owing to continuous in-wrangling and much controversy. With no party in leadership of the coalition, rival groups vied to unseat Desai. Controversial trials of prominent Congress leaders, including Indira gandhi over Emergency-era abuses worsened the fortunes of his administration. First Nuclear Test edit since will India's first nuclear test in 1974, desai kept India's nuclear reactors stating "they will never be used for atomic bombs, and I will see to it if I can help it". 7 In 1977, the carter administration offered to sell heavy water and uranium to India for its nuclear reactors but required American on-site inspection of nuclear materials. Desai declined, seeing the American stance as contradictory, in light of its own nuclear arsenal. 8 Domestically, he played a crucial role in the Indian nuclear program after it was targeted by major nuclear powers after conducting a surprise test in 1974. Morarji desai closed down much of India's premier intelligence agency research and Analysis Wing (r aw reducing its budget and operations. Desai remains the only Indian national to be conferred with pakistan's highest civilian award, nishan-e-pakistan, which was conferred on him by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in 1990 in a colorful ceremony.
Morarji desai was selected by the janata alliance, later Janata party as their parliamentary leader, and thus became the first non-Congress Prime minister of India. Prime minister of India (1977-79) edit main article: Premiership of Morarji desai morarji desai (third from right, front row) with us president Jimmy carter during his January 1978 visit to India. Desai and Carter in the oval Office in June 1978. First Term as a prime minister edit After Indira gandhi decided to lift The Emergency, general elections were held. Janata party registered a landslide victory in the election and Morarji desai became the Prime minister. Desai worked to improve relations with neighbour pakistan and restored normal relations with China, for the first time since the 1962 war. He communicated with zia-ul-Haq and established friendly relations. Diplomatic relations were also re-established with China. His government undid many amendments made to the constitution during emergency and made it difficult for any future government to impose a national emergency.
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However, he was defeated by nehru's daughter, Indira gandhi, in the congress party leadership election by a big margin. Desai served as Deputy Prime minister and Finance minister of India in the Indira gandhi government until 1969 when Prime minister Gandhi took the finance portfolio from him. At the same time, she also nationalized the fourteen largest banks in India. These acts compelled Morarji desai to resign from the gandhi cabinet. In the subsequent split of the congress party, morarji joined the Indian National Congress (Organisation) faction of the party, whereas Gandhi formed a new faction called Indian National Congress (Ruling). Alternatively, the two factions of Desai and Indira were called Syndicate and Indicate respectively.
The 1971 general elections to the Indian parliament were won by Indira gandhi's faction in a landslide. Morarji desai, however, was elected as a member of the lok sabha or lower house of Parliament. Morarji desai went on indefinite hunger strike on to support nav nirman movement of Gujarat. 5 art In 1975, Indira gandhi was convicted of electoral fraud by the Allahabad High court, after opponents alleged she had used government civil servants and equipment during the campaign for the 1971 General Elections. 6 During the subsequent Emergency rule in 197577, in a massive crackdown, desai and other opposition leaders were jailed by the Indira gandhi government. Emergency wave edit The popular anti-corruption movement led by jayaprakash Narayan and the anti-Emergency wave in 1977 led to the complete routing of the congress party in Northern India, and a landslide victory for the opposition Janata alliance in the national elections held help in March.
The protesters were led by senapati bapat. Desai ordered firing which killed 105 protesters including an eleven-year-old girl during the incident. This escalated the issue and is believed to have forced the federal government to agree to two separate states based on language. After the formation of the present State of Maharashtra, bombay, now Mumbai became its state capital. Flora fountain was renamed "Hutatma Chowk" martyrs' Square" in Marathi) to honour the 105 people killed in the firing.
Later Desai moved to delhi when he was inducted as Home minister in the cabinet of Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Home minister edit As Home minister, desai outlawed any portrayals of indecency (which included "kissing" scenes) in films and theatrical productions. Being a staunch Gandhian, desai was socially conservative, pro-business, and in favour of free enterprise reforms, as opposed to Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru 's socialistic policies. Rising in Congress leadership, as a fierce nationalist with anti-corruption leanings, desai was at odds with Prime minister Nehru and his allies, and with Nehru's age and health failing, he was considered as a possible contender for the position of Prime minister. Outflanked in the leadership contest after Nehru's death in 1964 by the nehruvian Lal Bahadur Shastri, desai remained content to build support within the ranks. In early 1966, the unexpected passing away of Prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri after only 18 months in power made morarji desai once again a contender for the top position.
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When provincial elections were held in 19, desai was elected and served as the revenue minister and Home minister of the bombay presidency. In government edit Chief Minister of Bombay and Partition of two state edit before the independence of India, he became bombay's Home minister and later was elected as Chief Minister of Bombay state in 1952. The state was a bi-lingual state, home to gujarati-speaking and Marathi-speaking people. Since 1956, activist organization Samyukta maharashtra samiti led a movement for a marathi-only speaking state of Maharashtra. A staunch nationalist himself, morarji desai was opposed to such movements, including the mahagujarat movement led by Indulal Yagnik demanding a new state of Gujarat. Desai william proposed that the metropolitan Mumbai (as coined by earlier Koli inhabitants be made into a union territory or a separate development make region to suit its cosmopolitan nature, due to its long-settled citizens from diverse settings across various linguistic, cultural, and religious backgrounds spanning several. In opposition to his alleged Gandhian thoughts, desai ordered police to fire on demonstrators of the mumbai-unit of Samyukta maharashtra samiti at Flora fountain who had gathered there to demonstrate against government.
He was born in Bhadeli village, bulsar district, bombay presidency (now in Gujarat ) on 29 February 1896, the oldest of eight children. His father was a school teacher. 3 School serious education edit desai underwent his primary schooling in saurashtra The kundla School, savarkundla now called. Modi school and later joined bai ava bai high School, valsad. After graduating from Wilson College, mumbai, he joined the civil service in Gujarat. Desai resigned as deputy collector of Godhra in may 1930 after being found guilty of going soft on Hindus during the riots of 1927-28 there. 4 Freedom fighter edit desai then joined the freedom struggle under Mahatma gandhi and joined the civil disobedience movement against British rule in India. He spent many years in jail during the freedom struggle and owing to his sharp leadership skills and tough spirit, he became a favourite amongst freedom-fighters and an important leader of the Indian National Congress in the gujarat region.
4th, prime minister of India and led the government formed by the janata party. During his long career in politics, he held many important posts in government such as: Chief Minister of, bombay state, home minister, finance minister and 2nd, deputy Prime minister of India. On the international scene, desai holds international fame for his peace activism and made efforts to initiate peace between two rival. South Asian states, pakistan and India citation needed. After India's first nuclear explosion in 1974, desai helped restore friendly relations with China and pakistan, and vowed to avoid armed conflict such. Indo-pakistani war of 1971. He was also accused of scaling down the Indian covert operations agency, the. Contents, early life edit, birth edit, morarji desai was of, gujarati origin.
Normally, hindus and sikhs touch feet of elders, and Muslims in India normally only use phrases like - assalam-wale-kum, peace be shakespeare upon you, to greet each other. Another very useful and common word to know is jee, yes to show politeness and respect. Its usually placed after peoples first or last names, and for both male and female. In the case of the name ram Singh, it can either be ram jee or Singh jee. Therefore the greetings would be for example: namaste ram jee, hello ram, namaste Shyam jee, hello Shyam, namaste Sharda jee, hello Sharda. The word jee can also be used as a formal expression while calling someones name, for example: ram jee, sita jee or even, william jee, victoria jee. In day-to-day communication, especially in formal situations or between people of different ages, then jee is considered a polite expression to show respect instead of using haan, the hindi word for yes.
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The most common word for greetings in Hindi is namaste. Its a formal way to say hello to anybody with a sense of respect. Literally, it means I bow to you. The word is derived from two sanskrit words: namas meaning bow and te meaning to you. When greeting each other, people generally bow slightly while bringing their hands in front of the chest pressing them together, touching palms and pointing fingers upwards. Shaking hands is accepted in India in a westernised evernote environment, such as in meetings or in parties, or when people are being introduced formally to each other. But its not a common way to greet people in daily life.