German can theoretically gpa form past imperatives and passive imperatives, simply by using the imperative form of the respective auxiliary verbs : habe gesungen! (you shall have sung! (you shall be loved! (you shall have been loved!). None of such forms is really current, however. Like english, german features many constructions that express commands, wishes, etc. They are thus semantically related to imperatives without being imperatives grammatically: lasst uns singen!
For example: Geh weg! geh review du doch weg! Why, you go away!). German has T/V distinction, which means that the pronouns du and ihr are used chiefly towards persons with whom one is privately acquainted, which holds true for the corresponding imperatives. (For details see german grammar.) Otherwise, the social-distance pronoun sie (you) is used for both singular and plural. Since there exists no actual imperative corresponding to sie, the form is paraphrased with the third-person plural of the present subjunctive followed by the pronoun: singen sie! — said to one or more persons: sing! — said to one or more persons: be quiet!
Germanic languages edit dutch edit a peculiar feature of Dutch is, that it can form an imperative mood in the past tense. Its use is fairly common: 3 Had gebeld! (you should have called!) Was gekomen! (you should have come!) German edit german verbs have a singular and a plural imperative. The singular imperative is equivalent to the bare stem or the bare stem -e. (In most verbs, both ways are correct.) The plural imperative is the same as the second-person plural of the present tense. — said to one person: sing! — said to a group of persons: sing! In order to emphasize their addressee, german imperatives can be followed by the nominative personal pronouns du (thou; you.) or ihr (you.
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Citation needed There is also a fairly common construction where you (not necessarily emphasized) follows don't : "Don't you touch these!" Latin edit latin regular imperatives include amā (2nd pers. Singular) and amāte (2nd pers. Plural from the book infinitive amāre to love similarly monē and monēte from monēre to advise/warn audī and audīte from audīre to hear etc. The negative imperative is formed with the infinitive of the verb, preceded by eberts the imperative of nōlle to not want nōlī stāre don't stand 2nd pers. Singular) and nōlīte stāre (2nd pers.
Plural compare the positive imperative stā stand 2nd pers. Singular) and stāte (2nd pers. For third-person imperatives, the subjunctive mood is used instead. Latin also has a future imperative form. The corresponding forms are amātō (singular) and amātōte (plural monētō and monētōte, audītō and audītōte. Unlike the present imperative, the future imperative also has special forms for the third person ( amantō, monentō, audiuntō ).
Third person imperatives ( jussives ) are used to suggest or order that a third party or parties be permitted or made to do something: "Let them eat cake "Let him be executed". There is an additional imperative form that is used for general prohibitions, consisting of the word "no" followed by the gerund form. The best known examples are "no smoking" and "no parking". This form does not have a positive form; that is, "Parking" by itself has no meaning unless used as a noun when it tells that parking is permitted. Imperatives in particular languages edit for more details on imperatives in the languages listed below, and in languages that are not listed, see the articles on the grammar of the specific languages.
English edit English usually omits the subject pronoun in imperative sentences: you work hard. (imperative; subject pronoun you omitted) However, it is possible to include the you in imperative sentences for emphasis. English imperatives are negated using don't (as in "Don't work! This is a case of do -support as found in indicative clauses; however in the imperative it applies even in the case of the verb be (which does not use do -support in the indicative you are not late. (indicative) Don't be late! (imperative) It is also possible to use do -support in affirmative imperatives, for emphasis or (sometimes) politeness: "Do be quiet! The subject you may be included for emphasis in negated imperatives as well you don't touch these!
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i have to ask you to stop. politeness strategies (for instance, indirect speech acts ) can seem more appropriate in order not to threaten a conversational partner in their needs of self-determination and territory: the partner's negative face should not appear threatened. 2 As well as the replacement of imperatives with other sentence types as discussed above, there also often exist methods of phrasing an imperative in a more polite manner, such as the addition of a word like help please or a phrase like if you could. Imperatives are also used for speech acts whose function is essentially not to make an order or request, but to give an invitation, give permission, express a wish, make an apology, etc.: Come to the party tomorrow! (invitation) Eat the apple if you want. (permission) have a nice trip! (apology) Visit Estonia and Armenia! (advertisement) When written, imperative sentences are often, but not always, terminated with an exclamation mark. First make person plural imperatives ( cohortatives ) are used mainly for suggesting an action to be performed together by the speaker and the addressee (and possibly other people "Let's go to barbados this year "Let us pray".
Details of the esl syntax of imperative sentences in certain other languages, and of differences between affirmative and negative imperatives, can be found in some of the other specific language sections below. Imperatives are used principally for ordering, requesting or advising the listener to do (or not to do) something: "Put down the gun! "Pass me the sauce "Don't go too near the tiger." They are also often used for giving instructions as to how to perform a task install the file, then restart your computer. They can sometimes be seen on signs giving orders or warnings Stop "give way "Do not enter. The use of the imperative mood may be seen as impolite, inappropriate or even offensive in certain circumstances. 1 In polite speech, orders or requests are often phrased instead as questions or statements, rather than as imperatives: could you come here for a moment? (more polite than "Come here! It would be great if you made us a drink. (for "make us a drink!
conjugation pattern. Examples can be found in the specific language sections below. In languages that make a tv distinction (. Usted, etc.) the use of particular forms of the second person imperative may also be dependent on the degree of familiarity between the speaker and the addressee, as with other verb forms. The second person singular imperative often consists of just the stem of the verb, without any ending this is the case in the Slavic languages, for example. Syntax and negation edit Imperative sentences sometimes use different syntax than declarative or other types of clauses. There may also be differences of syntax between affirmative and negative imperative sentences. In some cases the imperative form of the verb is itself different when negated. A distinct negative imperative form is sometimes said to be in prohibitive or vetative mood ( abbreviated proh ). Many languages, even not normally null-subject languages, omit the subject pronoun in imperative sentences, as usually occurs in English (see below ).
Second-person imperatives (used for ordering or requesting performance directly from the person being addressed) are most common, but some languages also have imperative forms for the first and third persons (alternatively called cohortative and jussive respectively). In, english, the imperative is formed using the bare infinitive form of the verb (see, english verbs for more details). This is usually also the same as the second-person present indicative form, except in the case of the verb to be, where the imperative is be while the indicative is are. (The present subjunctive always has the same form as the imperative, although it is negated differently the imperative is negated using do not, as in "Don't touch me! see do -support.) The imperative form is understood as being in the second person (the subject pronoun you is usually omitted, although it can be included for emphasis with no explicit indication of singular or plural. First and third person imperatives are expressed periphrastically, using a construction with the imperative of the verb let : Let us ( Let's ) have a drink! (equivalent to a first person plural imperative) Let him/her/them be happy!
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The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request. An example of a verb used in the imperative mood is the. English sentence "Please be quiet". Such imperatives imply a second-person subject ( you but some other languages also have first- and third-person imperatives, with the meaning of "let's (do something or "let him/her/them (do something (the forms may writing alternatively be called cohortative and jussive ). Imperative mood can be denoted by the glossing abbreviation, imp. It is one of the irrealis moods. Contents, formation edit, imperative mood is often expressed using special conjugated verb forms. Like other finite verb forms, imperatives often inflect for person and number.