While many aspects of Uyghur life have paperless been altered by social, cultural, and political change over the last century, the importance of poetry in Uyghur culture remains undiminished. Perhaps thats why modernist poetry, which burst onto the uyghur literary scene thirty years ago, initially inspired such vigorous debate. The modernists, overwhelmingly young and supremely confident, frequently locked horns with the old guard and stirred great interest among readers. In the second half of the 1980s, the modernists reshaped Uyghur poetry, and even conservative poets—loyal to an ancient tradition of strict meter and rhyme—were influenced by the fresh imagery and thematic range of the young avant-garde. Among the most talented of that first generation of modernist poets was Tahir Hamut, born in Kashgar in 1969 and educated at the central University for Nationalities in beijing. His distinctive poems began appearing in Uyghur literary journals in 1986, and he continued publishing regularly for the next decade. In the late 1990s, he turned his attention to filmmaking, and directed a number of feature films, including the groundbreaking drama.
Whether this achievement ultimately offers much consolation for the losses of the first World War or even any is another question. Footnotes 1 Virginia woolf, modern novels (1919 reprinted in The Essays of Virginia woolf, volume iii,. By Andrew McNeillie (London: Hogarth Press, 1988. 2 Virginia woolf, The leaning Tower, reprinted in The Essays of Virginia woolf, volume vi,. By Stuart n clarke (London: Chatto windus, 2011). 3 write awrence, letter of to waldo Frank, the letters. Boulton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 19792000 iii (1984. The uyghur people, who live primarily in the uyghuristan, have for many centuries held poetry and poets in high esteem.
In The rainbow, largely completed before the war, modern industrialisation is shown as a threat, but one still leaving possibilities for escape or redemption, often through surviving contacts with the natural world. Women in love, on the other hand, was completed during the disastrous battles of the somme. As Lawrence himself describes, this novel does contain the results in ones soul of the war, offering a purely destructive vision, with little hope of resisting the mechanising, regimenting effects of a modern industrial society. 3 These effects were of course felt still more sharply in the regimented life and death of the army in the mechanical slaughter wrought by tanks, artillery and machine-guns in the trenches of the first World War. The war machine siegfried Sassoon describes in his fictionalised memoir Sherstons Progress (1936) ensured that soldiers lived and died almost automatically, with negligible prospects, or none, of controlling their own fate (ch. This sense of negated will and agency is also highlighted in Owen poems such as Anthem for doomed youth or The send-Off the latter describing soldiers despatched to the front anonymously, mechanically, like cattle. Such threats to the autonomy, agency and dignity of individual life along with the first World Wars gigantic destruction of life itself made contemplation. Unendurable unless artists could create new spheres of order, affirmation, or escape; new mirrors to hold up to a broken world. The urgency of this need for new devices, and the ingenuity with which modernist writers addressed it, made the 1920s one of the most inventive and successful decades in the history of literature.
Modernism in American literature
Like liot in The premier waste land, modernist novelists present contemporary life as fractured and fragmented, yet still seek some unity or fulfilment beyond its troubled surface. Pre- and post-war innovation Did modernist writing develop only in response to this troubled, war-ravaged world? The first book of Prousts multi-volume novel appeared in 1913, a year before the outbreak of the first World War. As woolf was well aware, in novels values such as Lord Jim (1900) and The secret Agent (1907 joseph Conrad was already writing the kind of fiction she recommends in Modern novels focussed through individual perspectives and impressions, and innovative in chronology and structure. From his first arrival in London in 1908, ezra pound had demanded that poets and artists make it new. Liot showed an inclination to do so as early as 1909, in poems such as Rhapsody on a windy night, which describes the kind of soulless, mechanical modern life further explored in The love song.
Alfred Prufrock (1917) and extensively in The waste land. Movements towards literary innovation, in other words, were already visible before the war. So were many of the negative aspects of modernity, mechanisation and industrialisation, altering life and society in ways already beginning to demand new forms of artistic representation. Yet it was the first World War itself which made the destructive aspects of modernity inescapable and the need for new artistic forms unavoidable. Awrences The rainbow (1915) and Women in love (1920 once conceived as a single novel, confirm the scale and nature of the change.
Rupturing the sense of the stream of time, the first World War added powerfully to the tendencies of modern novelists to conceive time as divided or fractured rather than or sometimes as well as seamlessly flowing. In a later essay, woolf recalled the war seeming like a chasm in a smooth road. Modernist writing repeatedly figures the war in this divisive, cutting role, slicing across time and history as sharply as the trenches cut across space on the battlefields. This sense of historical fracture is vividly dramatised. To the lighthouse, whose short, sharp middle section intrudes painfully upon the placid, pre-war family life described in the novels first part.
In its third part, the wars chasm is partly bridged by means of memories, recovering these happier earlier days. Woolfs central figure regularly looks back, during a june day in 1923, on the promise of romance, and of life generally, 30 years previously, long before the war darkened the world. Around the time of her Modern novels essay, woolf was already reading Marcel Prousts. A la recherche du temps perdu (191327 translated into English during the 1920s as Remembrance of Things Past. Prousts attempts to recover or almost re-inhabit the past, through memory and his title (literally In search of Lost Time) indicate one of the central interests of modernist fiction. Woolf insisted in Modern novels that writers should record atoms of impression in the order in which they fall. By following the sometimes random patternings of mind and memory, modernist writers could depart from the conventionally serial, chronological order of earlier fiction. Such departures sometimes emphasise the fractured, disorderly nature of war-time experience in Fords Parades End tetralogy (192428 for example. Yet in other fiction they can offer consoling reconnections with remembered and less troubled times.
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Representing consciousness, woolf had already recommended concentration on the minds mirroring in an essay written a few months after the Armistice. In Modern novels she suggests that rather than surveying an external, material world the novel should represent the myriad impressions of daily dissertation consciousness, recording the atoms as they fall upon the mind. 1, by early 1919, when her essay appeared, woolf could point to striking examples of the writing she recommends: in James joyces representation of inner consciousness in early sections. Ulysses, eventually completed and help published in 1922. During the 1920s, authors including Ford Madox Ford and woolf herself went on to develop styles similar to joyces celebrated stream of consciousness. In woolfs case, interior monologues are used extensively. To the lighthouse, and in following, in, mrs Dalloway (1925 a characters responses to a london society scarcely recovered from the shock of the war. Fractured time, other advantages were offered by new concentration on inner thought and feeling.
Finding new conventions, the first World War challenged not only pastoral imagination, but also many of literatures established forms and devices in some ways, even the conventional role of language itself. The colossal darkness and violence of the war scarcely allowed the world to be contained in ways. James joyce describes in, a training portrait of the Artist as a young Man (1916) mirrored perfectly in a lucid supple periodic prose (ch. Chaotic, unprecedented events required of modernist authors new literary languages: new ways of contemplating the world, and of mirroring it in their writing. Woolf indicates one of these in that middle section. Despairing of the mirror of nature, she indicates another kind of refuge from a disorderly world when she remarks that in those mirrors, the minds of men. Good triumphs, happiness prevails, order rules (ch. Instead of seeking beauty outside, could literature still find order and consolation in the mind within?
Along with woolfs reflections, these poems indicate how deeply the first World War challenged the kind old friendship between imagination and nature that long-standing pastoral convention, especially beloved of poets since the romantic period, of beauty outside matching the mind within. Scepticism of this convention opened the way for the harsher, dispirited modernist poetry appearing in the 1920s specifically, in the first lines. Liot s, the waste land (1922 likewise considering spring offensive, april as the cruellest month and corpses apparently as fertile as vegetation. The waste land, centred on depressed post-war existence in London, modernist poetry generally turns away from nature towards fractured, uneasy cityscapes. Any consolation for their spiritlessness and confusion, this poetry suggests, may be found only in mythic realms beyond the fractured surface of experience. Or a possibility ezra pound also pursues. The cantos (192570 like woolf at the end. To the lighthouse it may still be discovered within the grace and orderliness of art itself.
It is impossible to continue, as one walked by the sea, to marvel how beauty outside mirrored beauty within. Instead, contemplation was unendurable; the mirror was broken (ch. Image: victoria and Albert Museum, london. Except as otherwise permitted by your national copyright laws this material may not be copied or distributed further. Poets report fighting in France recorded a similar sense of loss. Confronting imminent, near-certain death. Wilfred Owen 's Spring Offensive, soldiers turn away from a sunny landscape as if from a friend with whom their love is done.
Modernist literature : definition of modernist literature and synonyms
Randall Stevenson describes how the violence and loss of the first World War affected modernist writers attitudes towards nature and time, as well as shaping their experiments with language, literary form and the representation of consciousness. Did Nature supplement what man advanced? Did she complete what he began? Virginia woolf in her 1927 novel, to mom the lighthouse (Part 2,. Not any more, according to the novels middle section, part 2: Time passes, set during the first World War. Time passes registers instead flesh turned to atoms which drove before the wind, and a seascape disfigured by ashen-coloured naval ships and the oily wreckage their battles leave upon the waves (ch. Torn and tarnished by wartime destruction, nature has lost its conventional power to console.